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Nirman Care - an educational blog - Welcome to Nirman Care - Class IX
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Class IX: Chapter 1 (India - Size and Location) Question & Answers

Q1. What is the location of India?
Ans: The mainland stretches from Latitude 8o4' North to 37o6' North and from Longitude 68o7' East to 97o25' East. The southernmost point in the Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Islands) is the Indira Point (6o45' North), while Kanya-Kumari, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland.

Q2. What is the size of India?
Ans: India is the seventh largest country in the world covering an area of 3.28 million square kilometers. India covers 2.4 % of the total geographical area of the world.

Q3. Name the states through which the Tropic of Cancer passes.
Ans: Tropic of Cancer passes through: Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.

Q4. Name the countries which are larger than India.
Ans: Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil and Australia are the countries larger than India.

Q5. Which countries together make the Indian subcontinent?
Ans: India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Nepal and Bhutan are the countries that together make the Indian subcontinent.

Q6. Name all the neighboring countries of India.
Ans: In the northwest, India shares its boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan. In the north, India shares its boundaries with China, Nepal and Bhutan. In the east, India shares its boundaries with Bangladesh and Myanmar. In the south, Maldives and Sri Lanka are our neighboring countries. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by Palk Strait.

Q7. Distinguish between Latitudes and Longitudes.
Ans:

Q8. The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why?
Ans: The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance because of the following reasons:
(a) India is centrally located on the world map.
(b) India has longest coastline on the Indian Ocean.
(c) It is surrounded by three water bodies, in the south by the Indian Ocean, in the east by the Bay of Bengal and in the west by the Arabian Sea.
(d) India is strategically located at the centre of the trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the European countries in the west and the countries of East Asia. Thus, India could establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast. Moreover, it could establish close contact with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast.
(e) Ocean sea routes, i.e., Suez Canal route, Cape of Good Hope route, pass through the Indian Ocean.
(f) India has been able to establish close cultural and commercial contacts with countries of west and east due to its central location.

Q9. Why has 82o30' E selected as standard meridian of India?
Ans:
(a) The longitudinal extent of India is 30o.
(b) The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
(c) It takes 4 minutes for the sun to move across 1 longitude. Thus, the eastern most point of India would be 2 hours ahead of the western most point (30 x 4 = 120 minutes), in accordance with the local time.
(d) This difference in time might create confusion in air and rail timings and so many other things across the two states. To avoid this confusion a longitude passing through the midpoint of 68o7' East (western most longitude) and 97o25' East (eastern most longitude) is taken as the standard prime meridian of India (i.e. 82o30').
(e) The time at the standard meridian 82o30' which passes through Mirzapur in UP is taken as the standard time of India, followed all over the country and hence the watches show the same time in both the states (i.e. Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat).

Q10. Map Work
1. The island groups of India lying in the Arabian Sea.
2. The island groups of India lying in the Bay of Bengal.
3. The states through which the Tropic of Cancer passes.
4. The northernmost latitude and the southernmost latitude of the Indian mainland in degrees.
5. The southernmost latitude of the Indian Territory in degrees and the place.
6. The easternmost and the westernmost longitudes in degrees.
7. The place situated on the three seas.
8. The strait separating Sri Lanka and India.
9. Standard Meridian of India in degrees.

Ans:

 

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Class IX: Chapter 1 - India - Size and Location

 

                  The country lies wholly in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres

 

  

                              India is the seventh largest country in the world

 

Latitudes and Longitudes:

   

Latitude:  It is an angular distance, North or South from the equator, of a point on the earth's surface. The equator is 0and points can therefore be measured in degrees south and Northof this line.

Longitude:  It is an angular distance of a point measured on the earth's surface to the East or West of a central reference point. The reference point in this case is the plane created by a meridian going through Greenwich in England. It is 0o meridian.

 

 

Location & Size of India:

  • India lies in the Northern and Eastern hemisphere.
  • India is the seventh largest country in the world covering an area of 3.28 million square kilometers.
  • India covers 2.4 % of the total geographical area of the world.
  • The mainland stretches from Latitude 8o4' North to 37o6' North and from Longitude 68o7' East to 97o25' East.
  • The latitudinal & longitudinal extent of the country is almost same in degrees i.e. about 30o.
  • The southernmost point in the Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Islands) is the Indira Point (6o45' North), while Kanya-kumari, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland.
  • Tropic of Cancer crosses the country at 23o30' North dividing the country into almost two equal parts.
  • The country is of a vast size and measures about 3,214 kilometers from North to South and about 2,933 kilometers from West to East.
  • Coastline: 7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
  • The 82o30' East longitude is taken as Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India (Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh).
  • Indian Standard Time: GMT + 05:30.
  • Strait: A narrow stretch of sea linking two large seas, e.g. Palk Strait, English Channel, etc.
  • India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh are the countries forming the Indian sub-continent.

 

Q. Why 82o30' East longitude (Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India?
Ans:

  • The longitudinal extent of India is 30o.
  • The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
  • It takes 4 minutes for the sun to move across 1 longitude. Thus, the eastern most point of India would be 2 hours ahead of the western most point (30 x 4 = 120 minutes), in accordance with the local time.
  • This difference in time might create confusion in air and rail timings and so many other things across the two states. To avoid this confusion a longitude passing through the midpoint of 68o 7' East (western most longitude) and 97o 25' East (eastern most longitude) is taken as the standard prime meridian of India (i.e. 82o30').
  • The time at the standard meridian 82o30' which passes through Mirzapur in UP is taken as the standard time of India, followed all over the country.

 

 

India and the World:

  • India is centrally located between the East and the West Asia.
  • India is located at the centre of the trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the European countries in the west and the countries of East Asia.
  • India has established close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast. Also, contact with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast.
  • India has longest coastline on the Indian Ocean.
  • India's contact with the world through land routes is much older than the sea routes.
  • Through these routes people around the world have come to know about India's culture and traditions.

 

India's Neighbours:

  • India has 29 states and 7 union territories.
  • In the northwest, India shares its boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  • In the north, India shares its boundaries with China, Nepal and Bhutan.
  • In the east, India shares its boundaries with Bangladesh and Myanmar.
  • In the south, India shares its boundaries with Maldives and Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by Palk Strait.

 

   


   

 

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Class IX: SA - II (Geography) Extra Question for Practice

Question and Answers (03 marks each)

Q1. Why the monsoon is considered a unifying bond?
Q2. Define monsoons. What do you understand by"Burst" and "break" of monsoon?
Q3. Why does the rainfall decrease from the east to the west in Northern India?
Q4. Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?
Q5. What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples.
Q6. Distinguish between a national park and a wildlife sanctuary.
Q7. What are the different types of vegetations found in India?
Q8. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?
Q9. What is an 'ecosystem'? How do human beings influence the ecology of a region?
Q10. Give an account of the distribution of tropical deciduous forests in India. Distinguish between moist deciduous forests and dry deciduous forests.
Q11. Write about any three medicinal plants found in India.
Q12. Define natural vegetation. What are the factors responsible for the distribution of natural vegetation and wildlife in India?
Q13. Define: (a) Adolescence (b) Census (c) Natural Growth Rate
Q14. How does pull and push factors leads to change in population?
Q15. Write a note on characteristics of population.
Q16. Define the structure of population.
Q17. What is Sex ratio? Explain the reasons behind low sex ratio in India.
Q18. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?
Q19. Distinguish between population growth and population change.

 

OTBA (05 marks each)

Q20. Monsoon is a gamble in India. What innovative methods are required to deal with the deficient methods?
Q21. What is the positive impact of a good monsoon on agriculture in India and Indian economy?
Q22. What are the benefits of building dams to the mankind?
Q23. What is the impact of monsoon's on agriculture in India?
Q24. Monsoons play a very important role in defining and deciding the Indian economy, highlight the main characteristics of monsoon in India.
Q25. What was the need of water express and how it played an important role?
Q26. Explain the condition of farmers during the drought situation in Maharashtra.
Q27. What are the various steps taken by the Indian government to minimize the drought situation in Maharashtra?
Q28. Every year state of Maharashtra faces drought situation. What are the different cropping patterns adopted by the farmers?
Q29. What can be the different solutions to overcome the problem of drought in India?
Q30. India is a country of beautiful landscapes, mountains, rivers, etc. but on the other hand every year some places face drought situation. Explain what leads to drought in some parts of the Indian subcontinent?

 

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Class IX: SA - II (Map Work) For Practice

Chapter 4: Climate

1. Cities to Locate: Tiruvananthpuram, Chennai, Jodhpur, Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata, Leh, Shillong, Delhi, Nagpur, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Jamnagar (location and labeling).

2. Areas receiving rainfall less than 20 cm and over 400 cm (Identification only).

 

Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation and Wild Life

1. Vegetation Type: Tropical Evergreen Forest, Tropical Deciduous Forest, Thorn Forest, Montane Forests and Mangrove (For identification only).

2. National Parks: Corbett, Kaziranga, Ranthambore, Shivpuri, Kanha, Simlipal, Rajaji, Dachigam and Manas.

3. Bird Sanctuaries: Bharatpur, Vedanthangal and Ranganthitta (location and labeling).

4. Wildlife Sanctuaries: Sariska, Mudumalai, Periyar, Chandra Prabha, Mahanadi (location and labeling).

 

Chapter 6: Population (location and labeling)

1. Densely populated state of India

2. Less populated state of India

3. The state of highest density of population

4. The state of lowest density of population

5. The state of highest literacy rate

6. The state of lowest literacy rate

7. The state of highest sex ratio

8. The state of lowest sex ratio

9. Largest state area wise

10. Smallest state area wise

 

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Class IX: Chapter 5 (Natural Vegetation & Wildlife)

Objectives and Goals:

1. Define Natural Vegetation (Virgin Vegetation).
2. Define Flora & Fauna.
3. Factors which affect the diversity of flora and fauna.
4. Define Ecosystem.
5. Biomes.
6. Types of Vegetations found in India. (Tropical Evergreen Forests, Tropical Deciduous Forests, Tropical Thorn Forests & Scrubs, Montane Forests and Mangrove Forests) .
7. Importance of Medicinal Plants.
8. Wildlife of India.
9. Threat to the Flora and Fauna.
10. Why conservation of Flora and Fauna is must?
11. Steps taken to protect the Flora and Fauna.

 

Natural Vegetation:
The naturally growing plant cover; without human aid; is called natural vegetation. The vegetation which has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time is called virgin vegetation.
The virgin vegetation, which are purely Indian are known as endemic or indigenous species but those which have come from outside India are termed as exotic plants.

Flora:
Plant species of a particular region or period are called flora.

Fauna:
The animal species of a particular region or period are called fauna.

 

Factors which Affect the Diversity of Flora and Fauna:

Relief:
1. Land: Land directly and indirectly affects the natural vegetation. Nature of land influences the type of vegetation. If the land is level and fertile, it is mainly used for farming. If the land is uneven then grassland and woodlands develop over it.

2. Soil: Different types of soil are fit for different types of vegetation. For example; sandy soil is fit for cactus and thorny bushes, while wet and marshy soil is fit for mangrove vegetation.

Climate:
1. Temperature and Humidity: Temperature and humidity are the main factors which determine the character and extent of vegetation. An area with high temperature and high humidity supports evergreen forest, while an area with high temperature and low humidity supports thorny bushes.

2. Photoperiod (Sunlight): The duration of sunlight is called photoperiod. Photoperiod depends on latitude, altitude, season and duration of the day. Trees grow faster in summer because of longer photoperiod.

3. Precipitation: If an area gets heavy rainfall, it is suitable for the growth of dense vegetation. On the other hand, an area with scanty rainfall is suitable for thorny bushes.

 

ECOSYSTEM:
(a) All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent on each other.
(b) The plants and animals; along with their physical environment make the ecosystem. Interrelation between plants and animals in the natural environment is called Ecosystem.
(c) A very large ecosystem is called a biome. Biomes are identified on the basis of plants.

 

TYPE OF VEGETATIONS

 

Tropical Rain Forests
(a) The tropical rainforests are confined to areas of heavy rainfall.
(b) Such areas are in the Western Ghats, upper parts of Assam, Tamil Nadu coast and the island groups of Lakshadweep and Andaman & Nicobar.
(c) Areas which receive more 200 cm of rainfall and have a short dry season are the best area for tropical rainforest.
(d) Almost all kinds of vegetation; like trees, shrubs and creepers; are found in such a forest.
(e) The forest has a multilayered structure.
(f) Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona are some of the commercially important trees of tropical rainforests.
(g) Elephants, monkey, lemur and deer are the common animals in these forests.
(h) Apart from them, a large number of birds, bats, sloth, scorpions and snails are also found in tropical rainforests.

 

Tropical Deciduous Forests
(a) Tropical deciduous forests are the most widespread forests of India.
(b) Spread in regions which get rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm.
(c) They are also called the monsoon forests.
(d) The trees of tropical deciduous rainforests shed their leaves during summer.
(e) These forests can be divided into two types on the basis of availability of water:
      1. Moist Deciduous Forest:
          (i) The moist deciduous forests are found in areas which receive rainfall between 200 cm and 100 cm.
          (ii) Such forests are found mainly in the eastern part of India; like northeastern states, along the foothills of                 the Himalayas, Jharkhand, West  Orissa and Chattisgarh.
          (iii) They are also found on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.

      2. Dry Deciduous Forest:
          (i) The dry deciduous forests are found in those regions which receive rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm.
          (ii) Such forests are found in the rainier parts of the peninsular plateau and the plains of Bihar and Uttar                      Pradesh.
(f) Teak, Bamboo, Sal, Shisham, Sandalwood, Khair, Kusum, Arjun, Mulberry are some of the commercially important trees in these forests.
(g) Lion, Tiger, Pig, Deer and Elephant are the common animals in these forests.
(h) Additionally, a large variety of Birds, Lizards, Snakes and Tortoises are found in these forests.

 

The Thorn Forests and Scrubs
(a) Thorn forests grow in those regions which receive less than 70 cm of rainfall.
(b) This type of vegetation is found in the north-western part of India, e.g. Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.
(c) The main plant species in such a forest are Acacia, Palms, Euphorbias and Cactus.
(d) The trees are scattered and they have long roots which go very deep in the ground.
(e) The stems are succulent to conserve water.
(f) Leaves are usually modified into thorns to prevent evaporation.
(g) Camel, Rats, Mice, Rabbits, Fox, Wolf, Tiger, Lion, Wild Ass, Horse, etc. are the common animals in thorny forests.

 

Montane Forests
The forests in the mountainous areas are called Montane forest.
Different types of vegetation are found at different altitudes in the mountains:
(a) The wet temperate type of forest is found between a height of 1000 and 2000 meter. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as Oak and Chestnut abound in such forests.
(b) Temperate forests are found between the heights of 1500 and 3000 meters. Coniferous trees; like Pine, Deodar, Silver Fir, Spruce and Cedar abound in such forests.
(c) Alpine vegetation (temperate forest and grasslands) are found at a height of more than 3600 meters. Silver fir, Junipers, Pines and Birches are the common trees found here.
(d) Above alpine vegetations found are the shrubs and scrubs used for grazing of animals by the nomadic tribes (i.e. Gujjars and Bakarwals).
(e) At the higher altitude Tundra vegetations are found. Mosses and lichens are found here.
Kashmir Stag, Spotted Deer, Wild Sheep, Jack Rabbit, Tibetan Antelope, Yak, Snow Leopard, Squirrels, Shaggy Horn, Wild Ibex, Bear, Rare Red Panda, Sheep And Goats are the common animals in these forests.

 

Mangrove Forests
Mangrove forests are found in the deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavari and the Kaveri.
(a) Roots of the mangrove plants are submerged under water.
(b) Hollow roots grow out vertically above water so that roots can breathe.
(c) Sundari tree is the most common tree in such forests; especially in the Sunderban Delta.
(d) Royal Bengal Tiger is the most famous animal of these forests.
(e) Additionally, Turtles, Crocodiles, Gharials and Snakes are found in these forests.

 

 

WILD LIFE
(a) There are more than 89,000 animal species in India.
(b) There are more than 1200 species of birds in India.
(c) Elephants are found in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala.
(d) One-horned rhinos are found in the swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal.
(e) Wild ass and camels are found in the Rann of Kachchh and Thar Desert.
(f) Indian Bison, Nilgai, Chousingha, Gazel and many other species of deer and some other animals are found in India.
(g) India is the only country in the world which has both tigers and lions.
(h) There are fourteen biosphere reserves in India.
(i) Four out of these, the SUNDERBANS IN THE WEST BENGAL, NANDA DEVI IN UTTARANCHAL, the GULF OF MANNAR IN TAMIL NADU and the NILGIRIS (KERALA, KARNATAKA AND TAMIL NADU) have been included in the world network of Biosphese reserves.
(j) The fourteen biosphere reserves are: Sunderbans, Gulf of Mannar, the Nilgiris, Nanda Devi, Nokrek, Great Nicobar, Manas, Simlipal, Dihang-Dibang, Dibru Saikhowa, Agasthyamalai, Kanchenjunga, Pachmari, Achanakmar-Amarkantak..
(k) Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and many other eco-developmental projects have been introduced.
(l) 89 National Parks, 49 Wildlife sanctuaries and Zoological gardens are set up to take care of Natural heritage.
(m) Wildlife Protection Act 1972.

 

 

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