29 November, 2018

Class X: Chapter 7 (Lifelines of National Economy) Questions & Answers

Q1. Define different "Gauge (in meters)" of railway tracks can be found in India.
Ans: In India generally we find three different gauges of railway tracks:
(a) Broad Gauge - 1.676 meters
(b) Meter Gauge - 1.000 meter
(c) Narrow Gauge - 0.762 meter & 0.610 meter

Q2. Describe about the first port which was developed soon after independence?
Ans: Kandla port was the first port which was developed soon after independence.
(a) Kandla port was developed to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the wake of loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after the partition.
(b) Kandla is a tidal port.
(c) It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrial belt stretching across the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Q3. Mention any three problems faced by Indian Railways.
Ans: Following are some of the problems faced by the Indian Railways:
(a) Many passengers travel without tickets.
(b) Thefts and damaging of railway property has not yet stopped completely.
(c) People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this causes heavy damage to the railway.

Q4. Highlight some of the key points of the India Postal Service.
Ans: Given below are some of the key points of the India Postal Service:
(a) The Indian postal network is the largest in the world.
(b) It handles parcels as well as personal written communications.
(c) Cards and envelopes are considered first-class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
(d) The second-class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport.
(e) To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently. They are called Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.

Q5. Highlight the merits of road transportation against any other means of transportation.
Ans: Following are the positives of road transport against the other means of transportation:
(a) Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
(b) Roads can pass through comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
(c) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
(d) Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
(e) It also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower.
(f) Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.

Q6. Describe the classification of roads according to their capacity.
Ans: Roads are classified in the following six classes according to their capacity:
(a) Golden Quadrilateral: The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane super highways. These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
(b) National Highways: National highways link extreme parts of the country. These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
(c) State Highways: Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as state highways. These roads are constructed and maintained by the state Public Works Department (PWD) in state and union territories.
(d) District Roads: These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.
(e) Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category. These roads received special momentum under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
(f) Border Roads: These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas. Constructions and maintenance of these roads is done by Border Roads Organization, a government of India undertaking.

Q7. Mention three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country.
Ans: The three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country are:
(a) From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
(b) (b) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and other places.
(c) (c) Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.

Q8. Describe the waterways that have been declared as the national waterways by the government of India.
Ans: Following are the waterways that have been declared as the national waterways by the government of India:
(a) The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km) - N.W. No. 1
(b) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km) – N.W. No. 2
(c) The west-coast canal in Kerala (Kottapurma - Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals) - 205 km – N.W. No. 3
(d) Specified stretches of the Godavari, Krishna Rivers alongwith Kakinada, Puducherry stretch of canals – 1078 km – N.W. No – 4
(e) Specified stretches of the river Brahmani along with Matai River, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and east coast canal – 588 km – N.W. No - 5
(f) There are some other inland waterways, like: Mandavi, Zuari and Cumberjua, Sunderbans, Barak, backawaters of Kerala and tidal stretches of some other rivers.

Q9. What is International Trade? What are the two major components of International Trade? What is balance of trade?
Ans: The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade. The market is the place where such exchanges take place. Trade between two countries is called international trade.

Import and export are the two main components of international trade.
(a) Export: Exports are the goods and services produced in one country and sold to another country.
(b) Import: Imports are foreign goods and services bought by a country.

Balance of Trade: The difference between export and import of a country.
When the value of exports is higher than value of imports then this is termed as favourable balance of trade.
On the other hand, when the value of imports is higher than value of exports, then this is termed as unfavourable balance of trade.

Q10. How tourism has helped in growth of Indian economy?
Ans:
(a) Tourism in India has grown largely over the last three decades.
(b) Foreign tourist's arrivals in the country witnessed an increase of 11.8 per cent during the year 2010 as against the year 2009, contributing Rs 64,889 crore of foreign exchange in 2010.
(c) 5.78 million foreign tourists visited India in 2010.
(d) More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
(e) Tourism also promotes national integration, provides support to local handicrafts and cultural recreations.
(f) It also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.
(g) Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, eco tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism.

Q11. On the map of India locate the following:

Major Sea Ports:
(A) Kandla
(B) Mumbai
(C) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(D) Marmagao
(E) New Mangalore
(F) Kochi
(G)Tuticorin
(H) Chennai
(I) Vishakhapatnam
(J) Paradwip
(K) Haldia
(L) Kolkata

International Airports:
(M) Amritsar (Raja Sansi)
(N) Delhi (Indira Gandhi International)
(O) Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji)
(P) Thiruvanantapuram (Nedimbacherry)
(Q) Chennai (Meenam Bakkam)
(R) Kolkata (Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose)
(S) Hyderabad (Rajiv Gandhi)

Ans: Locate and label the placed mentioned above by using the map given below:

 

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26 November, 2018

Class X: Chapter 7 (Lifelines of National Economy)

Objectives and Goals:
1. What is the lifeline to national economy?
2. Who are the traders?
3. World into Global Village.
4. Transportation, Communication and Trade, impact on national economy.
5. Different means of Transportation: Land, Water and Air.
6. Land: Roadways and Railways.
7. Roadways: Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways, National Highways, State Highways, District Highways, Other Roads and border roads.
8. Road Density.
9. Railways: Rail network, Rail gauge and length of routes in India, Development of railways
10. Pipelines.
11. Waterways.
12. Major Sea Ports
13. Airway
14. Major International Airports
15. Communication
16. International Trade
17. Tourism as a Trade

There are three types of economic activities. These are:
1. Primary Activities: Connected with extraction and production of natural resources like forestry, agriculture, mining, animal husbandry, etc.
2. Secondary Activities: Connected with processing and manufacturing of primary goods into finished goods. They get raw material from the Primary sector. For e.g. Iron ore into tools & machines, sugar cane into sugar, etc.
3. Tertiary Activities: Provides support to Primary and Secondary sectors through services, e.g. transportation, banking, tourism, etc.

Lifelines of National Economy:
• Transport plays an important role in the economy.
• Because of transport raw materials reach the factory and finished products reach to the consumer.
• The pace of development of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space.
• Therefore, efficient means of transport are pre-requisites for fast development.
• Apart from transport, the ease and mode of communications, like telephone and internet makes seamless flow of information possible.
• Today, India is well-linked with the rest of the world despite its vast size, diversity and linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
• Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers, radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have been contributing to its socio-economic progress in many ways.
• The trades from local to international levels have added to the vitality of its economy.
• It has enriched our life and added substantially to growing amenities and facilities for the comforts of life.

 

ROADWAYS:

• India has one of the largest road networks in the world, aggregating to about 2.3 million km at present.
• In India, roadways have preceded railways.
• They still have an edge over railways in view of the ease with which they can be built and maintained.
• The growing importance of road transport against the transport is rooted in the following reasons:
(a) Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
(b) Roads can pass through comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
(c) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
(d) Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
(e) It also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower.
(f) Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.

In India, roads are classified in the following six classes according to their capacity:

(a) Golden Quadrilateral:
• The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane super highways.
• The north-south corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and east-west corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat) are part of this project.
• The major objective of these super highways is to reduce the time and distance between the mega cities of India.
• These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).

(b) National Highways:
• National highways link extreme parts of the country.
• These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
• A number of major national highways run in north-south and east-west directions.

(c) State Highways:
• Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as state highways.
• These roads are constructed and maintained by the state Public Works Department (PWD) in state and union territories.

(d) District Roads:
• These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district.
• These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.

(e) Other Roads:
• Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category.
• These roads received special momentum under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
• Under this scheme special provisions are made so that every village in the country is linked to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.

(f) Border Roads:
• Apart from these, Border Roads Organization a government of India undertaking constructs and maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country.
• This organization was established in 1960 for the development of the roads of strategic importance in the northern and northeastern border areas.
• These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas.

 

Roads can also be classified on the basis of the type of material used:
(a) Metalled Road.
(b) Unmetalled Road.
(a) Metalled Road: These roads can be made of Cement, Concrete or even bitumen of coal, therefore, these are all weather roads.
(b) Unmetalled Road: These roads go out of use in the rainy season.

Road Density:
• The length of road per 100 sq. Km of area is known as density of roads.
• Distribution of road is not uniform in the country.
• Density of all roads varies from only 10.04 km in Jammu & Kashmir to 532.27 km in Uttar Pradesh (2007-08) with national average of 125.02 km (2007-08).
• In the year 1996-97, the national average density of road was 75 km.
• Road transportation in India faces a number of problems.
• Keeping in view the volume of traffic and passengers, the road network is inadequate.
• About half of the roads are unmetalled and this limits their usage during the rainy season.
• The national highways are inadequate too.
• Moreover, the roadways are highly congested in cities and most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.
• In the recent years, fast development of road network has taken place in different parts of India.

 

RAILWAYS

• Railways are the most important mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.
• Railways also make it possible to conduct different activities like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage, etc. along with transportation of goods over longer distances.
• Apart from an important means of transportation the Indian railways have been a great integrating force for more than 150 years.
• The first train ran between Mumbai to Thane in the year 1853 covering an area of 34 kms.
• Railways in India bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the development of the industry and agriculture.

Rail Network:
• The Indian railways have a network of 7,133 stations spread over a route length of 64,460 km.
• With a fleet of 9,213 locomotives,
• 53,220 passenger service vehicles,
• 6,493 other coach vehicles and 2,29,381 wagons as on March 2011.

 

DISTRIBUTION OF RAILWAYS

• The Indian railway is now reorganized into 16 zones.

Development of Railways:

1. The distribution pattern of the railway network in the country has been largely influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors.
2. The northern plains with their vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provided the most favourable condition for their growth. However, a large number of rivers requiring construction of bridges across their wide beds posed some obstacles.
3. In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels.
4. The Himalayan mountainous regions too are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities.
5. Likewise, it was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Jharkhand.
6. The contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed only through gaps or passes (Ghats).
7. In recent times, the development of the Konkan railway along the west coast has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods in this most important economic region of India. It has also faced a number of problems such as sinking of track in some stretches and landslides.
8. Today, the railways have become more important in our national economy than all other means of transport put together.
9. However, rail transport suffers from certain problems as well:
    (a) Many passengers travel without tickets.
    (b) Thefts and damaging of railway property has not yet stopped completely.
    (c) People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this causes heavy damage to the railway.

 

PIPELINES

• Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India.
• In the past, these pipelines were used to transport water to cities and industries.
• Now, these are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.
• Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
• The far inland locations of refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based fertilizer plants could be thought of only because of pipelines.
• Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.
• It rules out trans-shipment losses or delays.

There are three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country:
(a) From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
(b) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and other places.
(c) Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.

 

WATERWAYS

• Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
• They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
• It is a fuel-efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.
• India has inland navigation waterways of 14,500 km in length.
• Out of these only 5,685 km are navigable by mechanized boats.
• The following waterways have been declared as the national waterways by the government:
   (a) The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km) - N.W. No. 1
   (b) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km) – N.W. No. 2
   (c) The west-coast canal in Kerala (Kottapurma - Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals) - 205 km – N.W. No. 3
   (d) Specified stretches of the Godavari, Krishna rivers alongwith Kakinada, Puducherry stretch of canals – 1078 km – N.W. No – 4
   (e) Specified stretches of the river Brahmani along with Matai river, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and east coast canal – 588 km – N.W. No - 5
   (f) There are some other inland waterways, like: Mandavi, Zuari and Cumberjua, Sunderbans, Barak, backawaters of Kerala and tidal stretches of some other rivers.

• India's trade with foreign countries is carried from the ports located along the coasts. 95 percent of the country's trade volume (68% in terms of value) is moved by sea.

 

Major Sea Ports of India
1. Kolkata Port
2. Haldi Port
3. Paradwip Port
4. Vishakhapatnam Port
5. Chennai Port
6. Tuticorin Port
7. Cochin Port
8. New Mangalore Port
9. Marmagao Port
10. Jawaharlal Nehru Port
11. Kandla Port
12. Port Blair Port
13. Mumbai Port
14. Ennore Port

Major Sea Ports
• India has a long coastline of 7,516.6 km.
• India has 12 major and 187 medium and minor ports.
• These major ports handle 95 per cent of India's foreign trade.
• Kandla in Kuchchh was the first port developed soon after independence to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the wake of loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after the partition.
• Kandla is a tidal port.
• It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrial belt stretching across the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

• India Mumbai is the biggest port with a spacious natural and well-sheltered harbour.
• The Jawaharlal Nehru port was planned with a view to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub port for this region.
• Marmagao port (Goa) is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country. This port accounts for about fifty per cent of India's iron ore export. New Mangalore port, located in Karnataka caters to the export of iron ore concentrates from Kudremukh mines. Kochi is the extreme south-western port, located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural harbour.
• On the east coast, is the port of Tuticorin, in Tamil Nadu. This port has a natural harbour and rich hinterland. Thus, it has a flourishing trade handling of a large variety of cargoes to even our neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka, Maldives, etc. and the coastal regions of India.
• Chennai is one of the oldest artificial ports of the country. It is ranked next to Mumbai in terms of the volume of trade and cargo.
• Vishakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked and well-protected port. This port was, originally, conceived as an outlet for iron ore exports.
• Paradwip port located in Orissa, specializes in the export of iron ore.
• Kolkata is an inland riverine port. This port serves a very large and rich hinterland of Ganga- Brahmaputra basin. Being a tidal port, it requires constant dredge of Hoogly.
• Haldia port was developed as a subsidiary port, in order to relieve growing pressure on the Kolkata port.

 

AIRWAYS
• The air transport was nationalized in 1953.
• On the operational side, Indian airlines, alliance air (subsidiary of Indian airlines), private scheduled airlines and non- scheduled operators provide domestic air services.
• Air India provides international air services.
• Pawanhans helicopters ltd. Provides helicopter services to oil and natural gas commission in its off- shore operations, to inaccessible areas and difficult terrains like the north-eastern states and the interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal. Indian airlines operations also extend to the neighbouring countries of south and south-east asia and the middle east.
• It can cover very difficult terrains like high mountains, dreary deserts, dense forests and also long oceanic stretches with great ease.

SOME OF THE MAJOR AIRPORTS IN INDIA
• Delhi- Indira Gandhi International Airport
• Mumbai- Chattrapathi Shivaji International Airport
• Bengaluru- (Bangalore) International Airport
• Hyderabad- Rajiv Gandhi International Airport
• Chennai International Airport
• Kolkata- Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport
• Thiruvananthapuram – International Airport
• Amritsar - Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport

 

COMMUNICATION
• People all over the world have been using different means of communication.
• Personal communication and mass communication including television, radio, press, films, etc. are the major means of communication in the country.

Indian Postal Service:
• The Indian postal network is the largest in the world.
• It handles parcels as well as personal written communications.
• Cards and envelopes are considered first-class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
• The second-class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport.
• To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently. They are called Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.

 

Telephone:
• India has one of the largest telephone networks in Asia.
• In order to strengthen the flow of information from the grassroots to the higher level, the government has made special provision to extend twenty-four hours STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) facility to every village in the country.
• There is a uniform rate of STD facilities all over India. It has been made possible by integrating the development in space technology with communication technology.

Mobile Telephone:
• India is one of the fastest growing mobile network in the world.
• Mobile phones have changed the way Indians conducted business.
• Now even low income group people like vegetable vendors, plumbers and carpenters get better business because they are connected through mobile phones.

Mass Communication:
• Mass communication provides entertainment and creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies.
• It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films.
• All India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages for various categories of people, spread over different parts of the country.
• Doordarshan, the national television channel of India, is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world.
• It broadcasts a variety of programmes from entertainment, educational to sports, etc. for people of different age groups.

                  

Newspapers:
• India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals annually.
• They are of different types depending upon their periodicity.
• Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dialects.
• Largest number of newspapers published in the country are in Hindi, followed by English and Urdu.

Films:
• India is the largest producer of feature films in the world.
• It produces short films; video feature films and video short films.
• The central board of film certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.

 

INTERNATIONAL TRADE
• The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade.
• The market is the place where such exchanges take place.
• Trade between two countries is called international trade.
• It may take place through sea, air or land routes.
• Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity.
• It is, therefore, considered the economic barometer for a country.
• Resources are unevenly distributed throughout the world. Thus, no country can survive without international trade.
• Import and export are the two main components of international trade.
• Export: Exports are the goods and services produced in one country and sold to another country.
• Import: Imports are foreign goods and services bought by a country.
• Balance of Trade: The difference between export and import of a country.
• When the value of exports is higher than value of imports then this is termed as favourable balance of trade.
• On the other hand, when the value of imports is higher than value of exports, then this is termed as unfavourable balance of trade.

SHARE IN EXPORTS OF THE MAJOR INDIAN COMMODITIES IN THE YEAR 2010-11

 

SHARE IN IMPORTS OF THE MAJOR INDIAN COMMODITIES IN THE YEAR 2010-11

International Trade:
(a) In the year 2010-11, the Bulk imports as a group registered a growth accounting for 28.2% of total imports.
(b) This group includes:
      • Fertilizers – 3.4%
      • Cereals – 14.3%
      • Edible Oils – 17.4%
      • Newsprint – 40.3%
(c) International trade has seen a tremendous change in the last fifteen years.
(d) Exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and knowledge.
(e) India has emerged as a software giant at the international level and it is earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology.

 

TOURISM AS A TRADE:
(a) Tourism in India has grown largely over the last three decades.
(b) Foreign tourist's arrivals in the country witnessed an increase of 11.8 per cent during the year 2010 as against the year 2009, contributing Rs 64,889 crore of foreign exchange in 2010.
(c) 5.78 million foreign tourists visited India in 2010.
(d) More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
(e) Tourism also promotes national integration, provides support to local handicrafts and cultural recreations.
(f) It also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.
(g) Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, eco tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism.
(h) There is a vast potential for development of tourism in all parts of the country.
(i) Efforts are being made to promote different types of tourism for this upcoming industry.

 

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25 November, 2018

Class X: Chapter 6 (Manufacturing Industries) Extra Questions for Practice

Q1.  Define Manufacturing.
Q2.  Define Industry.
Q3.  Mention importance of manufacturing.
Q4.  What are the different physical and human factors responsible for the industrial location?
Q5.  What is "Agglomeration Economics"?
Q6.  Draw a flow chart to define classification of industries.
Q7.  Define classification of industries on the basis of capital investment.
Q8.  Give examples (two each) of classification of industries on the basis of ownership.
Q9.  Why Maharashtra and Gujarat emerged as the hub of cotton textile industries in India?
Q10. What are the different problems faced by cotton textile industries in India?
Q11. India exports cotton goods to which all countries?
Q12. In which location jute is majorly produced?
Q13. Which country is the largest producer of jute in the world?
Q14. When the National Jute Policy was formulated?
Q15. Major sugar industries are spread across which all states?
Q16. Name the major public sector and private sector iron and steel industries in India.
Q17. What are the different challenges for Sugar industry?
Q18. Why most of the iron and steel industries are in the Chota-Nagpur plateau region?
Q19. Which city is known as the electronic capital of India?
Q20. Name the major centers of automobile industry.
Q21. Name the major manufacturers of cars, commercial vehicles and two & three-wheelers in India.
Q22. Name the important centers of Information Technology and Electronics Industry in India.
Q23. What different Preventing measures can be taken to protect the environmental degradation done by the Industries in India?
Q24. Map Work:
(A) Cotton Textile Industries: Mumbai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Surat, Kanpur, Coimbatore and Madurai

(B) Iron and Steel Plants: Burnpur, Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur, Raurkela, Bhilai, Vijaynagar, Bhadravati, Vishakhapatnam and Salem

(C) Software Technology Parks: Mohali, Noida, Jaipur, Gandhinagar, Indore, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata, Bhubaneshwar, Vishakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mysore, Chennai and Thiruvanantapuram

 

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14 November, 2018

Class X: Chapter 6 (Manufacturing Industries) Question & Answers

Q1. Define:  (a) Manufacturing     (b) Industries.
Ans: (a) Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw material to more valuable products is called "Manufacturing".
(b) Industry: Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.

Q2. What is Agglomeration Economies?
Ans: Many Industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centre's known as agglomeration economies.

Q3. Define classification of industries on the basis of Ownership.
Ans: Following is classification of industries on the basis of Ownership:
(a) Private Sector Industries: Owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. Bajaj Auto, Reliance, etc.
(b) Public Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the government. E.g. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. (BHEL), SAIL, etc.
(c) Joint Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. OIL (Oil India Ltd.), Maruti Udyog Limited., Gujarat State Fertilizers, Cochin Refineries, etc.
(d) Co-operative Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Mutually they get the resources and share the profit and losses. E.g. Sugar industry in Maharashtra, Coir industry in Kerala, etc.

Q4. Highlight the Problems faced by cotton textile industries in India.
Ans: Following are some of the problems faced by cotton textile industries in India:
(a) Unpredictable power supply.
(b) Obsolete machinery.
(c) Low output of labour.
(d) Stiff competition with the synthetic fiber.

Q5. Describe the factors responsible for the development of jute industry in the Hugli basin.
Ans: Given below are the factors responsible for the development of jute industry in the Hugli basin:
(a) Closeness of the jute producing areas.
(b) Inexpensive water transport.
(c) Good network of railways, roadways and waterways.
(d) Abundant water for processing raw jute.
(e) Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
(f) Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.

Q6. Mention the key points of Automobile Industry in India.
Ans: Some of the key points of Automobile Industries in India are as follows:
(a) Almost all types of vehicles are manufactured in India.
(b) After liberalization in 1991, many automobile manufacturers set up their base in India.
(c) With the launch of contemporary models, India became an attractive market for automobiles.
(d) At present, there are 15 manufacturers of cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of two and three-wheelers.
(e) Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Sanand, Pantnagar, etc. are the major centers of automobile industry.

Q7. Describe the characteristics and distribution of iron and steel industries in India.
Ans: Following are the characteristics and distribution of iron and steel industries in India:
(a) This is basic industry.
(b) These industries are the feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries.
(c) Due to this, production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country's development.
(d) India is 9th among the world crude steel producers and produces 32.8 million tons of steel.
(e) India is the largest producer of sponge iron. But per capita consumption of steel is only 32 kg per annum.
(f) At present, there are 10 primary integrated steel plants in India. Additionally, there are many mini steel plants in the country.
(g) SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited) is the major public sector company in this sector, while TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) is the major private sector company in this industry.
(h) Most of the iron and steel industries are in the Chotanagpur plateau region. This region has plenty of low cost iron ore, high grade raw materials, cheap labour and good connectivity through railways and roadways.

Q8. Explain different types of pollutions caused by industries.
Ans: Industries are responsible for majorly four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
(a) Air Pollution: High proportion of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide create air pollution. Suspended particulate matters also create problems. Smoke is emitted from chimneys of various factories. Some industry also pose the risk of leak of hazardous chemicals; the way it happened during the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Air pollution has adverse effect on human health, animals, plants, buildings, and the atmosphere as a whole.
(b) Water Pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents cause water pollution. Paper, pulp, chemical, textile, dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries, etc. are the main culprits of water pollution.
(c) Thermal Pollution: It occurs when hot water from factories or thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. This plays havoc with the aquatic life.
Waste from nuclear power plants contains highly radioactive materials and it needs to be properly stored. Any leakage of radioactive material can cause short term and long term damages to humans as well as to other life forms.
(d) Noise Pollution: Noise pollution can result in constant irritation, hypertension and hearing impairment. Factory equipments, generators, electric drills, etc. are the major sources of noise pollution.

Q9. What different steps can be taken to minimize the environmental degradation done by the industries?
Ans: Given below are some of the steps that can be taken to minimize the environmental degradation done by the industries:
(a) Chimneys should be fitted with electrostatic precipitators to prevent release of suspended particulate matters.
(b) Water should be reused and recycled in the industry. This will help in minimizing the use of freshwater.
(c) Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
(d) Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released in rivers and ponds.

Q10. On the map of India locate the following:
(A) Cotton Textile Industry: MUMBAI
(B) Cotton Textile Industry: AHMEDABAD
(C) Cotton Textile Industry: KANPUR
(D) Cotton Textile Industry: MADURAI
(E) Iron and Steel Plant: JAMSHEDPUR
(F) Iron and Steel Plant: BHILAI
(G) Iron and Steel Plant: VISHAKHAPATNAM
(H) Iron and Steel Plant: SALEM
(I) Software Technology Park: BHUBANESHWAR
(J) Software Technology Park: HYDERABAD
(K) Software Technology Park: BANGALURU
(L) Software Technology Park: THIRUVANANTHAPURAM

Ans:

 

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27 October, 2018

Class X: Chapter 6 (Manufacturing Industries)

Objectives and Goals:

(a) Define the term Manufacturing and Industries.
(b) Three types of economic activities (i.e. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary).
(c) Importance of Manufacturing.
(d) Contribution of Industry to National Economy.
(e) Industrial Location (Factors effecting the location of an Industry).
(f) Industrial Market Linkage (The Industrial System).
(g) Classification of Industries (i.e. On the basis of Raw Materials, On the basis of Investment: Large Scale Industries, Small Scale Industries and On the basis of Ownership: Private Sector Industries, Public Sector Industries, Joint Sector Industries, Co-operative Sector Industries).
(h) Agro Based Industries (Textile Industry: Cotton & Jute, Sugar Industry)
(i) Mineral Based Industries (Iron & Steel Industry, Automobile Industry, Information Technology & Electronics Industry)
(j) Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation: Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Thermal Pollution, Noise Pollution).
(k) Control of Environmental Degradation.
(l) National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)

There are three types of economic activities. These are:
1. Primary Activities: Connected with extraction and production of natural resources like forestry, agriculture, mining, animal husbandry, etc.
2. Secondary Activities: Connected with processing and manufacturing. They get raw material from the Primary sector. When the primary product is processed into a secondary product, its utility and value is increased.
3. Tertiary Activities: Provides support to Primary and Secondary sectors through services, e.g. transportation, banking, tourism, etc.

 

MANUFACTURING: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw material to more valuable products is called "Manufacturing".

INDUSTRY: Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.

 

THE ECONOMIC STRENGTH OF A COUNTRY IS MEASURED BY THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES.

 

IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES:
(a) Industrial growth helps in modernising the agricultural activities by providing machinery, chemicals, irrigation facilities, insecticides, pesticides, etc..
(b) Industrial growth helps in reducing the unemployment and poverty.
(c) Industrial growth can earn foreign exchange by exporting the finished goods and thus, can expand its trade and commerce.
(d) Any country with high level of manufacturing activities becomes prosperous.

 

CONTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRY TO NATIONAL ECONOMY:
(a) The share of manufacturing sector in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has been stagnant at 17% over the last two decades.
(b) The total contribution of industry to the GDP is 27% out of which 10% comes from mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.
(c) The growth of the manufacturing sector had been 7% in the last decade. Since 2003, the growth rate has been 9 to 10% per annum. The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12%.
(d) The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set with the objectives of improving productivity through proper policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry.

 

INDUSTRIAL LOCATION
Factors effecting the location of an Industry:
(a) Physical Factors
(b) Human Factors
(c) Key to decision of industrial location is "LEAST COST".
(d) Government policies and specialized labours also influence the location of industry.

Agglomeration Economies: Many Industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centre's known as agglomeration economies. Gradually, a large industrial agglomeration takes place.

• Industrialization leads to Urbanization.

 

INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM

• An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs.

Input: Raw materials, labour, costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.

Process: All activities that convert the raw material into finished products.

Output: End/ Final/Finished product and the income earned from it.

 

INDUSTRY – MARKET LINKAGE

 

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES:

1. On the basis of Raw Materials:
These types of industries are classified depending on the type of raw materials they use.
(a) Agro Based Industries: Use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. E.g. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products, etc.
(b) Mineral Based Industries: Primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. E.g. Iron& Steel, Cement, Machine Tools, etc.

According to their main role:
1. Basic or Key Industries: These industries supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods, e.g. iron and steel, copper smelting, aluminium smelting, etc.
2. Consumer Industries: These industries produce goods which are directly used by consumers, e.g. sugar, paper, electronics, soap, etc.

2. On the basis of Investment:
These types of industries are classified depending on the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production.
(a) Large Scale Industries: In India, on an industry, if the capital invested is more than 1 crore, then it is called Large Scale Industry. e.g. Iron & Steel Industries, Automobile Industries, etc.
(b) Small Scale Industries: In India, on an industry, if the capital invested is less than 1 crore, then it is called Small Scale Industry. E.g. Silk weaving, Food processing industries, etc.

3. On the basis of Ownership:
(a) Private Sector Industries: Owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. e.g. Bajaj Auto, Reliance, etc.
(b) Public Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the government. e.g. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. (BHEL), SAIL, etc.
(c ) Joint Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. e.g. OIL (Oil India Ltd.), Maruti Udyog Limited., Gujarat State Fertilizers, Cochin Refineries, etc.
(d) Co-operative Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Mutually they get the resources and share the profit and losses. e.g. Sugar industry in Maharashtra, Coir industry in Kerala, etc.

4. On the basis of the Bulk and Weight of Raw Materials and Finished Goods:
(a) Heavy Industries: Use heavy and bulky raw material and produce heavy goods. E.g. Iron and Steel Industry.
(b) Light Industries: Use light raw material and produce light goods. E.g. Electrical Industries.

 

AGRO BASED INDUSTRIES
Following are some of the type of industries using agricultural raw material:
(a) Textile Industries: Cotton, Jute, Silk, Woollen, etc.
(b) Sugar and Edible Oil, etc.

 

TEXTILE INDUSTRY
(a) The textile industry contributes 14% to industrial production in India.
(b) 35 million persons are directly employed in the textiles industry in India.
(c) In terms of employment generation, this industry is the second largest after agriculture.
(d) It earns approximately 24.6% of the foreign exchange.
(e) The contribution of textiles industry to GDP is 4%.
(f) This is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain.

Cotton Textiles:
(a) Cotton textiles were traditionally produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques.
(b) Power-looms came into use after the 18th century. During the colonial period, the competition of mill-made cloth from England destroyed the Indian textiles industry.
(c) By November 2011 there were 1946 cotton and synthetic textile mills in India.
(d) Almost 80% of them are in the private sector. The rest are in the public sector and cooperative sector.
(e) Additionally, there are several thousand small factories with four to ten looms.

Location of Cotton Textile Industry:
(a) This industry was earlier concentrated in the cotton belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
(b) Availability of raw materials, port facilities, transport, labour, moist climate, etc. were in favour of these locations.
(c) The industry provides a source of livelihood to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
(d) This industry supports many other industries; like chemical and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.
(e) Spinning still continues to be centralized in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
(f) However, weaving is highly decentralized and there are many weaving centers in the country.
(g) India has world class production in spinning but weaving supplies low quality of fabrics as it cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.
(h) The handspun khadi provides large scale employment to weavers in their homes as cottage industry.
(i) India exports cotton yarn to Japan. Cotton goods are also exported to USA, UK, Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka and African countries.
(j) At around 34 million, India has the second largest installed capacity of spindles in the world; after China.
(k) India accounts for one fourth of the world trade in cotton yarn. However, India's share in garment trade in the world is only 4%.
(l) Our spinning mills are globally competitive and can use all the fibres we produce. But the weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.

Problems faced by cotton textile industries in India:
(a) Unpredictable power supply.
(b) Obsolete machinery.
(c) Low output of labour.
(d) Stiff competition with the synthetic fiber.

 

Jute Textiles:
(a) India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods in the world.
(b) It is the second largest exporter of jute; after Bangladesh.
(c) In 2010-11 there were 80 jute mills in India.
(d) Most of these mills are located in West Bengal; mainly along the bank of river Hooghly.
(e) The jute industry is in a narrow belt which is 98 km long and 3 km wide.

Location advantages of Hooghly basin:
(a) Proximity of the jute producing areas.
(b) Inexpensive water transport.
(c) Good rail and road network.
(d) Abundant water for processing raw jute.
(e) Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
(f) The jute industry directly supports 2.61 lakh workers.
(g) It also supports 40 lakh small and marginal farmers who are engaged in cultivation of jute and mesta.
(h) Jute industry is facing challenge from synthetic fiber and also from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand. But the internal demand has been rising because of government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
(i) The National Jute Policy was formulated in 2005 with an objective to increase productivity, improve quality and ensure good prices for the jute farmers.
(j) Due to growing global concern for environment friendly and biodegradable material; the future of jute looks bright.
(k) USA, Canada, Russia, UAE, UK and Australia are the main markets.

 

Sugar Industry:
(a) India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world.
(b) It is the largest producer of gur and khandsari.
(c) There are over 460 sugar mills in the country.
(d) They are spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.
(e) Sixty percent mills are in UP and Bihar.
(f) This industry is seasonal and hence is more suited to the cooperative sector.
(g) In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states; especially in Maharashtra.
(h) The cane produced in this region has higher sucrose content. The cooler climate of this region ensures a longer crushing season.

Challenges for Sugar industry:
(a) Seasonal nature of industry.
(b) Old and inefficient methods of production.
(c) Transport delay and the need to maximize the use of baggase are the major challenges for this industry.

 

MINERAL BASED INDUSTRIES

Iron & Steel Industry
(a) This is basic industry.
(b) These industries are the feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries.
(c) Due to this, production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country's development.
(d) India is 9th among the world crude steel producers and produces 32.8 million tons of steel.
(e) India is the largest producer of sponge iron. But per capita consumption of steel is only 32 kg per annum.
(f) At present, there are 10 primary integrated steel plants in India. Additionally, there are many mini steel plants in the country.
(g) SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited) is the major public sector company in this sector, while TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) is the major private sector company in this industry.
(h) Most of the iron and steel industries are in the Chotanagpur plateau region. This region has plenty of low cost iron ore, high grade raw materials, cheap labour and good connectivity through railways and roadways.

Reasons for underperformance of Iron and steel Industry in India:
(a) High cost and limited availability of coking coal.
(b) Low productivity of labour.
(c) Erratic energy supply.
(d) Poor infrastructure.

 

Automobile Industry
(a) Almost all types of vehicles are manufactured in India.
(b) After liberalization in 1991, many automobile manufacturers set up their base in India.
(c) With the launch of contemporary models, India became an attractive market for automobiles.
(d) At present, there are 15 manufacturers of cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of two and three-wheelers.
(e) Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Sanand, Pantnagar, etc. are the major centers of automobile industry.

 

Information Technology and Electronics Industry
(a) Bangalore is often termed as the electronic capital of India.
(b) Mumbai, Pune, Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore are the other important centers.
(c) There are 18 software technology parks in the country and they provide single window service and high data communication to software experts.
(d) This industry had generated a large number of employments.
(e) Upto 31 March 2005, over one million persons were employed in the IT industry. Because of fast growth of BPO (Business Process Outsourcing); this sector has been a major earner of foreign exchange.

 

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
• Industries are responsible for majorly four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
• The polluting industries also include thermal power plants.

(a) Air Pollution: High proportion of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide create air pollution. Suspended particulate matters also create problems. Smoke is emitted from chimneys of various factories. Some industry also pose the risk of leak of hazardous chemicals; the way it happened during the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Air pollution has adverse effect on human health, animals, plants, buildings, and the atmosphere as a whole.

(b) Water Pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents cause water pollution. Paper, pulp, chemical, textile, dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries, etc. are the main culprits of water pollution.

(c) Thermal Pollution: It occurs when hot water from factories or thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. This plays havoc with the aquatic life.
Waste from nuclear power plants contains highly radioactive materials and it needs to be properly stored. Any leakage of radioactive material can cause short term and long term damages to humans as well as to other life forms.

(d) Noise Pollution: Noise pollution can result in constant irritation, hypertension and hearing impairment. Factory equipments, generators, electric drills, etc. are the major sources of noise pollution.

 

Preventing Environmental Degradation by Industry:
(a) Industries are responsible for majorly four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
(b) Water should be reused and recycled in the industry.
(c) This will help in minimizing the use of freshwater.
(d) Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
(e) Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released in rivers and ponds.

 

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06 October, 2018

Class X: Chapter 5 (Minerals and Energy Resources) Extra Questions for Practice

Q1. What is a mineral?
Q2. Define Ore.
Q3. What are the properties of minerals?
Q4. Name the different locations where minerals are generally found.
Q5. What are Veins and Lodes?
Q6. What is Rat-Hole Mining?
Q7. What are ferrous minerals?
Q8. Draw a flow chart to define classification of minerals.
Q9. Describe the two different type of iron ores found in India.
Q10. Define Kudermukh.
Q11. MAP 1: MINERALS

1. IRON ORE MINES:

(A) Mayurbhanj
(B) Durg
(C) Bailadila
(D) Bellary
(E) Kudremukh

2. BAUXITE DEPOSITS:

(F) The Amarkantak plateau
(G) Maikal hills
(H) The plateau region of Bilaspur- Katni.
(I) Orissa: Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district

3. MICA MINES:

(J) Ajmer
(K) Beawar
(L) Nellore
(M) Gaya
(N) Hazaribagh

4. MICA DEPOSITS:

(O) The Chota Nagpur plateau.
(P) Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand
(Q) Ajmer
(R) Nellore mica belt

Q12. MAP 2: CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY

1. COAL MINES:

(A) Raniganj
(B) Jharia
(C) Bokaro
(D) Talcher Korba
(E) Singrauli
(F) Singareni
(G) Neyvali

2. OIL FIELDS:

(H) Digboi
(I) Naharkatia
(J) Mumbai High
(K) Bassien
(L) Kalol
(M) Ankaleshwar

Q13. MAP 3: NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY

POWER PLANTS:

1. THERMAL:

(A)Namrup
(B) Talcher
(C) Singrauli
(D) Harduaganj
(E) Korba
(F) Uran
(G) Ramagundam
(H) Vijaywada
(I) Tuticorin

2. NUCLEAR:

(J) Narora
(K) Rawat Bhata
(M) Kakrapara
(N) Tarapur
(O) Kaiga
(P) Kalpakkam

 

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