Q1. Name the controls affecting the climate of any place.
Ans: There are six major controls of the climate of any place. They are:
(a) Latitude (b) Altitude (c) Pressure and Wind System
(d) Distance from the Sea (e) Ocean Currents (f) Relief Features.
Q2. What are the elements of weather and climate?
Ans: There are the five major elements of weather and climate, i.e. Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, Humidity and Precipitation
Q3. What are Jet Streams?
Ans: Fast flowing air currents in a narrow zone in the upper atmosphere are known jet streams.
Q4. Define monsoons. What do you understand by "break" in monsoon?
Ans: The seasonal reversal in wind direction during a year is called monsoon. The word "Monsoon" has been derived from an Arabic word called "Mausim" which means "Season".
Monsoon tends to have 'breaks' in rainfall; which means that there are wet and dry spells in between. The monsoon rains take place only for a few days at a time and then come the rainless intervals.
Q5. Why the monsoon is considered a unifying bond?
Ans: Following are few of the reasons why the monsoon is considered as a unifying bond in India:
(a) The Indian landscape, its flora and fauna, etc. are highly influenced by the monsoon.
(b) The entire agricultural calendar in India is governed by the monsoon.
(c) Most of the festivals in India are related to agricultural cycle. These festivals may be known by different names in different parts of the country, but their celebration is decided by the monsoon.
(d) It is also said that the river valleys which carry the rainwater also unite as a single river valley unit.
Q6. Discuss the mechanism of monsoons.
Ans: Following are the factors responsible for the mechanism of monsoon:
(a) The Sun causes differential heating and cooling of land and water. This creates low pressure on the landmass of India and high pressure over the ocean surface.
(b) The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is normally positioned about 5°N of the equator. It shifts over the Ganga plains during summer. It is also known as the monsoon trough during the monsoon season.
(c) The high pressure area, east of Madagascar is approximately 20°S over the Indian Ocean. This area affects the Indian Monsoon.
(d) The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer. This results in strong vertical air currents and formation of low pressure over the plateau. This low pressure zone is about 9 km above the sea level.
(e) The westerly jet stream move to the north of the Himalayas, and the tropical easterly jet stream moves over the Indian Peninsula during summer.
(f) The periodic change in pressure conditions between Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean that is known as the Southern Oscillation or SO also affects the monsoon.
(g) The difference in pressure over Tahiti (18°S/149°W) in the Pacific Ocean and Darwin (12°30'S/131°E) lies in northern Australia predicts the intensity of the monsoons. If the pressure differences are negative, it means a below average and late monsoon.
Q7. Give an account of weather conditions and characteristics of the cold season.
Ans: Following are the features of the cold season:
(a) The winter season begins from mid-November and till February; in northern India. December and January are the coldest months.
(b) The temperature goes low in the northern plains, while moderate in Chennai.
(c) As the northeast trade winds blow from land to sea, most parts of the country experience a dry season.
(d) The weather is usually marked by clear sky, low temperatures and low humidity and weak variable winds.
(e) The inflow of the cyclonic disturbances from the west and the northwest is a characteristic feature of the cold weather over the northern plains.
(f) These low-pressure over the Mediterranean Sea and Western Asia move into India that causes winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains.
(g) The winter rainfall is in small amount but is very important for the rabi crop. This rainfall is locally known as mahawat.
(h) The peninsular region does not get a well-defined winter because of the moderating influence of the sea.
Q8. Write the characteristics of the retreating monsoon or the transition season.
Ans: Following are the characteristics of the retreating monsoon or the transition season:
(a) During October-November, the sun apparently moves towards the south. Thus, the monsoon trough over the northern plains becomes weaker and the south-west monsoon winds start withdrawing. The monsoon withdraws from the northern plains by the beginning of October.
(b) The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature. Day temperatures are high, nights are cool and pleasant.
(c) High temperature and humidity, makes the weather quite uncomfortable during the day. This is commonly known as "October Heat".
(d) The temperature begins to fall rapidly in northern India by the second half of October.
(e) The low-pressure conditions over northwestern India move to the Bay of Bengal by early November.
(f) This shift leads to cyclonic depressions over the Andaman Sea. These cyclones usually cross the eastern coasts of India and cause heavy and widespread rain. These cyclones may also arrive at the Coasts of Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh.
(g) These cyclones contribute to the bulk of the rainfall of the Coromandel Coast.
Q9. Describe the onset and withdrawal of the monsoons in India.
(a) Generally, the monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian peninsular by the first week of June. Subsequently, it divides into two branches, viz. the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch.
(b) The Arabian Sea branch reaches Mumbai about ten days later, i.e. around 10th of June. The Bay of Bengal rapidly advances and reaches Assam in the first week of June.
(c) The monsoon winds are then deflected by high mountains and move towards west over the Ganga plains. The Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon arrives over Surashtra-Kuchchh and central part of the country by mid-June.
(d) The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal branches of the monsoon merge over the northwestern part of the Ganga plains.
(e) Delhi usually receives monsoon showers from the Bay of Bengal branch by the end of June.
(f) Western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, and eastern Rajasthan experience monsoon by the first week of July. The monsoon reaches Himachal Pradesh and the rest of the country by mid-July.
Withdrawal: Withdrawal or the retreat of the monsoon is a more gradual process.
(a) The monsoon begins to withdraw from the northwestern states of India by early September.
(b) The monsoon withdraws completely from the northern part of the Indian peninsular by mid-October.
(c) The monsoon withdraws from the rest of the country by early December.
(d) The islands receive the very first monsoon showers from the first week of April to the first week of May; progressively from south to north. The withdrawal of monsoon in the islands takes place from the first week of December to the first week of January.
Q10. On an outline map of India, show the following:
(a) Areas receiving rainfall over 400 cms.
(b) Areas receiving less than 20 cms of rainfall.
(c) The direction of the south-west monsoon over India.
(d) The Wettest place of the World.
(e) City in the eastern coast having an average temperature between 24-25 degree Celsius in the winter season.
Q1. What is a mineral?
Ans: A homogenous, naturally occurring substance with definable internal structure is called mineral.
Q2. What are the properties of minerals?
Ans: Following are the properties of minerals:
(a) Minerals are unevenly distributed throughout the world.
(b) Minerals take millions of year to form and are present in impure form.
(c) Minerals are non-renewable 'exhaustible' resources.
Q3. Mention the varieties of coal found in India.
Ans: Following are the different varieties of coal found in India:
(a) Anthracite: This is the highest quality hard coal.
(b) Bituminous: Coal which was formed because of increased temperature and was buried very deep is called bituminous coal. This is the most popular coal for commercial use. High grade bituminous coal is ideal for use in metallurgy.
(c) Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal. It is soft and has high moisture content. Neyveli in Tamil Nadu has the main reserves of lignite coal. This type of coal is used for electricity generation.
Q4. Write a note on Bauxite an ore to Aluminum.
Ans: (a) Bauxite is clay like substance, out of which aluminum is obtained.
(b) Amarkantak Plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni are the main areas of bauxite deposits.
(c) In 2009-10 Orissa was the largest producer of bauxite in India with 34.97%.
(d) Panchpatmali in Koraput district is the most important centre of bauxite deposit in Orissa.
(e) Aluminum is incredibly popular because it is Lightweight, Strong, Durable, Ductile, Malleable, etc.
(f) Aluminum is used in: Automobiles, Aircraft, Spacecraft, Packaging (Cans, Foil, frame, etc). Food and beverage containers, etc.
Q5. Write a note on Geo Thermal Energy.
Ans: Geo thermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth. Geothermal energy exists because; the Earth grows more and more hot with increasing depth. Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depths. Groundwater in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot. It is so hot that when it rises to the earth's surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity.
There are several hundred hot springs in India, which could be used to generate electricity. Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy. One is located in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga Valley, Ladakh.
Q6. Differentiate between Hydro Electricity and Thermal Electricity.
Q7. Minerals are essential part of our life, it is important to know about the occurrence of minerals. Mention different modes where minerals occur?
Ans: Minerals are usually found in ores. Minerals generally occur in the following forms:
(a) In Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks: The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger occurrences are called lodes. They are usually formed when minerals in liquid/molten and gaseous forms are forced upwards through cavities towards the earth's surface. Examples: tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc.
(b) In Sedimentary Rocks: In these rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers. Coal, iron ore, gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt are the minerals found in sedimentary rocks.
(c) By Decomposition of Surface Rocks: Decomposition of surface rocks and removal of soluble constituents leaves a residual mass of weathered material which contains ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.
(d) As Alluvial Deposits: These minerals are found in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called placer deposits. They generally contain those minerals which are not corroded by water. Examples; gold, silver, tin, platinum, etc.
(e) In Ocean Water: Most of the minerals in ocean water are too widely diffused to be of economic importance. But common salt, magnesium and bromine are mainly derived from ocean waters.
Q8. Describe the distribution of iron ore in India.
Ans: Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. The major iron ore belts in India are:
(a) Orissa Jharkhand Belt: Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa have high grade hematite ore. Additionally, hematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.
(b) Durg Bastar Chandrapur Belt: This belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. The Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh have very high grade hematite ore. This hilly range has 14 deposits of super high grade hematite ore. Iron from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakapatnam port.
(c) Bellary Chitradurga Chikmaglur Tumkur Belt: This belt lies in Karnataka. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats are a 100 percent export unit. The ore from these mines is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.
(d) Maharashtra Goa Belt: This belt includes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. The ores in these mines are not of very high quality. They are exported through Marmagao port.
Q9. Differentiate between Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
Q10. Draw a flow chart to explain the classification of minerals.
Q11. On the map of India locate the following:
(A) Iron Ore Mines: Mayurbhanj
(B) Iron Ore Mines: Kudremukh
(C) Bauxite Deposits: The Amarkantak Plateau
(D) Bauxite Deposits: Orissa: Panchpatmali Deposits In Koraput
(E) Mica Mines: Ajmer
(F) Mica Mines: Gaya
(G) Coal Mines: Bokaro
(H) Coal Mines: Neyvali
(I) Oil Fields: Digboi
(J) Oil Fields: Mumbai High
(K) Thermal Power Plant: Ramagundam
(L) Thermal Power Plant: Tuticorin
(M) Nuclear Power Plant: Rawat Bhata
(N) Nuclear Power Plant: Kalpakkam
Q1. How did India's Green Revolution benefit farmers?
Ans: Green Revolution was a period when the productivity of global agriculture increased drastically as a result of new advances. During this time period, new chemical fertilizers and synthetic herbicides and pesticides were created. The chemical fertilizers made it possible to supply crops with extra nutrients and, therefore, increase yield. The newly developed synthetic herbicides and pesticides controlled weeds, deterred or kill insects, and prevented diseases, which also resulted in higher productivity.
Benefits of Green Revolution
As a result of the Green Revolution and the introduction of chemical fertilizers, synthetic herbicides and pesticides, high-yield crops, and the method of multiple cropping, the agricultural industry was able to produce much larger quantities of food. This increase in productivity made it possible to feed the growing human population.
Q2. What is the White Revolution?
Ans: In India, Gujarat and Rajasthan had excess production as compared to local consumption of milk. In 1970, the National Dairy Development Board initiated activities like building veterinary centres, milk chilling centres, processing plants and strengthened the milk cooperative movement based on Anand Milk Union Limited (AMUL).
This was done through Operation Flood, with aid from the Food and Agriculture Organisation in the form of butter oil and milk powder. This ushered in the White Revolution in India, making it the world's largest milk producing country.
White revolution is also known as operation flood.
Q1. Which two peninsular rivers flow towards the west?
Ans: The Narmada and the Tapi are the two major peninsular rivers which flow towards the west and drains into the Arabian Sea.
Q2. Explain the following: (a) Drainage Basin (b) Water Divide (c) River System
Ans: (a) Drainage Basin: The area drained by a single river system is known as Drainage Basin. E.g. Basin of the River Ganga and its tributaries.
(b) Water Divide: Any elevated area such as an upland that separates two drainage basins is called a water divide. E.g. Ambala is located on the water divide between The Indus and The Ganga.
(c) River System: Small streams flowing from different directions come together to form the main course of the river and ultimately, drains into the seas or the oceans. Thus, the river along with its tributaries is known as River System. E.g. The Indus River System.
Q3. Write a note on National River Conservation Plan (NRCP).
Ans: The activities of Ganga Action Plan (GAP) phase-I, initiated in 1985, were declared closed on 31st March 2000. The Steering Committee of the National River Conservation Authority reviewed the progress of the GAP and necessary correction on the basis of lessons learnt and experiences gained from GAP Phase-I. These have been applied to the major polluted rivers of the country under the NRCP.
The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-II, has been merged with the NRCP. The expanded NRCP now covers 152 towns located along 27 interstate rivers in 16 states. Under this action plan, pollution abatement works are being taken up in 57 towns. A total of 215 schemes of pollution abatement have been sanctioned. So far, 69 schemes have been completed under this action plan. A million litres of sewage is targeted to be intercepted, diverted and treated.
Q4. Define lake. Explain the different types of lakes.
Ans: A large water body which is surrounded by land is called a lake.
Following are the different types of lakes:
(a) Ox-bow Lake: A lake formed when a meandering river is cut off from the mainstream. The shape of this lake resembles an ox-bow.
(b) Lagoon: When the lake is formed by spits and bars in coastal areas, it is called a lagoon. Chilika lake, Pulicat lake, Kolleru lake, etc. are examples of lagoon.
(c) Glacial Lake: A lake formed by melting of glacier is called a glacial lake. Most of the lakes in the Himalayan region are glacial lakes. Wular lake (Jammu & Kashmir) is the largest freshwater lake in India. It was formed by tectonic activity.
(d) Man Made Lakes: Gobind Sagar is a man-made reservoir situated in Bilaspur District, Himachal Pradesh.
Q5. Explain the different types of drainage patterns.
Ans: Depending on the slope of land, underlying rock structure and climate of an area, the streams in a drainage basin form certain patters. Different types of drainage pattern are as follows:
(a) Dendritic Drainage Pattern: When the river channel follows the slope of the terrain, it develops dendritic pattern. The stream and its tributaries resemble the branches of a tree. Hence, it is called dendritic pattern.
(b) Trellis Drainage Pattern: When a river is joined by its tributaries at almost right angles, it develops a trellis pattern. Trellis pattern develops where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other.
(c) Rectangular Drainage Pattern: When rocks are strongly joined, then rectangular pattern develops.
(d) Radial Drainage Pattern: When the streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure, a radial pattern is developed.
Q6. Rivers and lakes hold a great importance in the country's economy; mention some economic benefits of rivers and lakes.
Economic benefits of rivers:
1. Rivers have been a source of food since pre-history, almost all the civilizations developed along the river banks.
2. Rivers are also used for irrigation, hydro-power generation.
3. Rivers are used for navigation. They provide the cheapest inland means of transport.
4. Water from the river is the basic natural resource essential for various day-to-day activities of human beings.
5. It is also a rich source of fresh water fish.
Benefits of a Lakes:
1. A lake helps in preventing flood by regulating the flow of river.
2. During dry seasons, a lake helps to maintain an even flow of the river.
3. Lakes can also be used for generating hydel power.
4. Tourism development.
5. Maintain aquatic ecosystem.
Q7. Explain the major features of the following:
(a) The Ganga River System (b) The Indus River System
(c) The Godavari River System (d) The Narmada River System
(a) The Ganga River System:
• The river Ganga in its origin state is known as Bhagirathi. It is fed by the Gangotri Glacier.
• The total length of river Ganga is 2500 km.
• Bhagirathi is joined by Alaknanda at Devprayag in Uttarakhand. Ganga emerges from the mountains on to the plains at Haridwar.
• Yamuna, Ghaghara, Gandak and Kosi, Chambal, Betwa and Son are the major tributaries of Ganga. River Yamuna meets Ganga at Allahabad.
• After taking waters from various tributaries, Ganga flows towards east till Farakka (West Bengal). The river bifurcates at Farakka. The Bhagirathi-Hooghly (a distributary) flows towards south to the Bay of Bengal.
• The mainstream flows southwards into Bangladesh; where it is joined by the Brahmaputra. It is known as Meghna.
• Finally, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of Bengal forming the Sunderban Delta.
(b) The Indus River System:
• The river Indus originates in Tibet; near Lake Mansarowar. It enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu & Kashmir.
• Zaskar, Nubra, Shyok and Hunza are the main tributaries which join the Indus in Kashmir region.
• After flowing through Baltistan and Gilgit, the Indus emerges from the mountains at Attock.
• Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum join together and enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan.
• After that, the Indus flows southwards and finally reaches the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi.
• Indus is 2900 km long.
• The Indus river basin covers parts of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The rest of the portion is in Pakistan.
(c) The Godavari River System:
• It originates from the slopes of the Western Ghats in Nasik district of Maharashtra and drains into the Bay of Bengal.
• This is the longest Peninsular River. This river is popularly known as "Dakshin Ganga".
• The Godavari is about 1500 km long.
• The Godavari basin covers parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
• The Purna, the Wardha, the Pranhita, the Manjra, the Wainganga, the Penganga, etc. are the main tributaries of Godavari River.
(d) The Narmada River System:
• The Narmada raises in the Amarkantak hills (Maikal Range) in the Madhya Pradesh.
• The river flows towards the west through rift valleys. The Narmada basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
• All the tributaries of the Narmada are very short. Most of the tributaries join the Narmada at right angles.
• The river travels a distance of 1,312 km.
• The major tributaries of the Narmada River are the Banjar River, the Barna River, the Tawa River.
Q8. Discuss the significant difference between the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.
Q9. Compare the east flowing and the west flowing rivers of the peninsular plateau.
Q10. Map Work.
(a) Ganga River (b) Satluj River (c) Damodar River (d) Krishna River
(e) Narmada River (f) Tapi River (g) Mahanadi River (h) Brahmaputra River
(i) Indus River (j) Yamuna River (k) Chilika Lake (l) Sambhar Lake
(m) Wular Lake (n) Pulicat Lake (o) Kolleru Lake (P) Vembanad Lake
Ans: Please refer the map given below and label properly on the map.
Objectives and Goals:
2. Drainage Basin, Water Divide and Perennial.
3. The Drainage System of India.
4. The division of Indian rivers (i.e. The Himalayan Rivers and the Peninsular Rivers).
5. The Drainage Pattern (i.e. Dendritic, Trellis, Rectangular and Radial Patterns).
6. The Course of the River and features formed by river during it's course.
7. The Himalayan Rivers (i.e. The Indus River System, The Ganga River System and The Brahmaputra River System).
8. The Peninsular Rivers (i.e. The Narmada Basin, The Tapi Basin, The Godavari Basin, The Mahanadi Basin, The Krishna Basin and The Kaveri Basin).
9. The Lakes and its value to the mankind.
10. The Role of rivers in the economy.
11. The River Pollution and how we can protect our rivers.
12. The National River Conservation Plan (NRCP).
Depending on the slope of land, underlying rock structure and climate of an area, the streams in a drainage basin form certain patters. Different types of drainage pattern are as follows:
1. Dendritic Drainage Pattern: When the river channel follows the slope of the terrain, it develops dendritic pattern. The stream and its tributaries resemble the branches of a tree. Hence, it is called dendritic pattern.
2. Trellis Drainage Pattern: When a river is joined by its tributaries at almost right angles, it develops a trellis pattern. Trellis pattern develops where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other.
3. Rectangular Drainage Pattern: When rocks are strongly joined, then rectangular pattern develops.
4. Radial Drainage Pattern: When the streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure, a radial pattern is developed.
It is important to note that a combination of different patterns may develop in the same drainage basin.
Course of a River:
1. Rivers are the most important agents of degradation.
2. Work of the river depends on two factors: -
(a) The volume of Water.
(b) Slope of river beds.
3. Common features formed by river while flowing through mountains: -
(a) 'I' & 'V' shaped valleys.
(b) Gorges or Canyons (deep valleys).
(c) Waterfalls, etc.
4. Common features formed by river while flowing through plains: -
(a) Meanders(curves & large bends or loops)
(b) Oxbow Lakes
(c) Flood Plains
(d) Levees (slightly raised river banks)
5. Common features formed by river when it reaches near the sea: -
(a) River breakup into various streams called 'distributaries'.
The Drainage System of India
The drainage systems in India can be divided into two major groups:
1. The Himalayan Rivers 2. The Peninsular Rivers.
1. The Himalayan Rivers:
The Himalayan Rivers: Most of the Himalayan Rivers are perennial (i.e. they have water throughout the year).
River System: A river along with its tributaries forms a river system.
The three major Himalayan River Systems are:
1. The Indus River System
2. The Ganga River System
3. The Brahmaputra River System
The Indus River System:
- The river Indus originates in Tibet; near Lake Mansarowar. It enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu & Kashmir.
- Zaskar, Nubra, Shyok and Hunza are the main tributaries which join the Indus in Kashmir region.
- After flowing through Baltistan and Gilgit, the Indus emerges from the mountains at Attock.
- Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum join together and enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan.
- After that, the Indus flows southwards and finally reaches the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi.
- Indus is 2900 km long.
- The Indus plain has a very gentle slope.
- A little over one-third of the Indus basin is located in India; in the states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The rest of the portion is in Pakistan.
The Ganga River System:
- The river Ganga in its origin state is known as Bhagirathi. It is fed by the Gnagotri Glacier.
- Bhagirathi is joined by Alaknanda at Devprayag in Uttarakhand.
- Ganga emerges from the mountains on to the plains at Haridwar.
- Yamuna, Ghaghara, Gandak and Kosi are the major tributaries of Ganga.
- Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas. It meets Ganga at Allahabad.
- Ghaghara, Gandak and Kosi rise in the Nepal Himalaya.
- Chambal, Betwa and Son are the major tributaries which come from the peninsular uplands.
- After taking waters from various tributaries, Ganga flows towards east till Farakka (West Bengal).
- The river bifurcates at Farakka. The Bhagirathi-Hooghly (a distributary) flows towards south to the Bay of Bengal.
- The mainstream flows southwards into Bangladesh; where it is joined by the Brahmaputra. It is known as Meghna.
- Finally, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of Bengal forming the Sunderban Delta.
- The total length of river Ganga is 2500 km.
- Ambala is located on the water divide between Indus and Ganga.
- Length of plains from Ambala to Sundarban detla is around 1800 kms. But the slope is only 300 metres.
- In this area river develops large meanders.
The Brahmaputra River System:
- The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet; east of Mansarowar lake.
- River Brahmaputra is a little longer than the river Indus.
- Most of the course of the Brahmaputra lies outside India, popularly known as Tsangpo . It flows eastwards parallel to the Himalayas.
- After reaching Namcha Barwa, it takes a "U" turn (also known as Hair Pin turn) and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh through a gorge known as Dihang. In this region the river is known as Dihang.
- It is joined by Dibang, Lohit, Kenula and many other tributaries and finally forms the Brahmaputra in Assam.
- Majuli (in Assam) is the largest riverine island in the world. The island had a total area of 1,250 square kms.
- Unlike other north Indian rivers the Brahmaputra gets huge deposits of silt on its bed. This results in rising of the river bed.
- River Brahmaputra is known by different names in different regions: (Tsangpo in Tibet, Brahmaputra in India & Jamuna in Bangladesh).
THE PENINSULAR RIVER SYSTEM
- Most of the Peninsular Rivers are seasonal because they depend on rainfall for water.
- These rivers have shorter and shallower courses; compared to the Himalayan rivers.
- Most of the major rivers of the Peninsula flow eastwards and drain into the Bay of Bengal Major rivers are The Mahanadi, The Godavari, The Krishna and The Kaveri.
- These rivers make deltas at their mouths.
- The Narmada and Tapi are the only long rivers, which flow westwards and make estuaries.
- The drainage basins of the peninsular rivers are smaller in size.
The main differences between Delta and Estuary are as follows:
The Narmada Basin:
- The Narmada rises in the Amarkantak hills (Maikal Range) in the Madhya Pradesh.
- The river flows towards the west through rift valleys.
- The Narmada basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
- All the tributaries of the Narmada are very short.
- Most of the tributaries join the Narmada at right angles.
- The river travels a distance of 1,312 km.
- The major tributaries of the Narmada river are the Hallon River, Banjar River, Barna River and Tawa River.
The Tapi Basin:
- The Tapi rises in the Satpura ranges, in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh.
- The basin of Tapi covers parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
- The river flows towards the west through rift valleys parallel to river Narmada.
- The river travels a distance of 724 km.
- Tributaries of the Tapti River are the Mindhola River, Girna River, Panzara River, Waghur River, Bori River and Aner River.
The Mahanadi Basin:
- This river originates in the highlands of Chhattisgarh and drains into the Bay of Bengal.
- It is about 860 km long.
- The Mahanadi basin covers Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa.
The Godavari Basin:
- This is the longest Peninsular river.
- This river is popularly known as "Dakshin Ganga".
- Its drainage basin is also the largest among the peninsular river basins.
- The Godavari is about 1500 km long.
- It originates from the slopes of the Western Ghats in Nasik district of Maharashtra and drains into the Bay of Bengal.
- The Godavari basin covers parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
- Purna, Wardha, Pranhita, Manjra, Waiganga and Penganga are the main tributaries of Godavari.
The Krishna Basin:
- The Krishna originates near Mahabaleshwar and drains into the Bay of Bengal.
- It is about 1400 km long.
- Tungbhadra, Koyana, Ghatprabha, Musi and Bhima are some of its tributaries.
- The Krishna basin covers Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
The Kaveri Basin:
- The Kaveri originates in the Brahmagiri range of the Western Ghats and drains into the Bay of Bengal.
- It is about 760 km long.
- Amravati, Bhavani, Hemavati and Kabini are its main tributaries.
- The Kaveri basin covers Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. .
- A large water body which is surrounded by land is called a lake.
- Most of the lakes are permanent, while some contain water only during the rainy season.
- Lakes are formed by the action of glaciers and ice sheets, by wind, river action and by human activities.
Types of Lakes:
1. Ox-bow Lake: A lake formed when a meandering river is cut off from the mainstream. The shape of this lake resembles an ox-bow.
2. Lagoon: When the lake is formed by spits and bars in coastal areas, it is called a lagoon. Chilika lake, Pulicat lake, Kolleru lake, etc. are examples of lagoon.
3. Glacial Lake: A lake formed by melting of glacier is called a glacial lake. Most of the lakes in the Himalayan region are glacial lakes. Wular lake (Jammu & Kashmir) is the largest freshwater lake in India. It was formed by tectonic activity.
4. Man Made Lakes: These lakes are created by human activities. Gobind Sagar is a man-made reservoir situated in Bilaspur District, Himachal Pradesh.
Benefits of a Lake:
1. A lake helps in preventing flood by regulating the flow of river.
2. During dry seasons, a lake helps to maintain an even flow of the river.
3. Lakes can also be used for generating hydel power.
4. Tourism development.
5. Maintain aquatic ecosystem.
Role of rivers in the economy:
- Rivers have been the centre of human civilization since ancient times.
- Even today, many big cities are situated on the bank of a river.
- River water is used for irrigation, navigation, hydroelectricity, fisheries, etc.
- The growing domestic, municipal, industrial and agricultural demand for water from rivers naturally affects the quality of water.
- As a result, more and more water is being drained out of the rivers reducing their volume.
- On the other hand, a heavy load of untreated sewage and industrial effluents are emptied into the rivers.
- This affects not only the quality of water but also the self-cleansing capacity of the river.
National River Conservation Plan (NRCP)
- The National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) in the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change is implementing the Centrally Sponsored Schemes of National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) for conservation of rivers, lakes and wetlands in the country.
- The objective of the River Action Plans is to improve water quality of rivers through implementation of pollution abatement schemes in identified polluted stretches of rivers.
- NPCA aims at conserving aquatic ecosystems (lakes and wetlands) through implementation of sustainable conservation plans, and governed with application of uniform policy and guidelines.
Ganga Action Plan (GAP)
- Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-I was launched in the year 1985 to improve the water quality of river Ganga and was completed in March 2000.
- Phase-II of the programme was approved in stages from 1993 onwards which included tributaries of the river Ganga namely, Yamuna, Gomti, Damodar and Mahananda.
- Pollution abatement works undertaken include, interception and diversion of raw sewage, setting up of sewage treatment plants, creation of low cost sanitation facilities, setting up of electric/improved wood crematoria and river front development.
- GAP Phase–II is currently under implementation.
- An expenditure of Rs. 896.05 crore has been incurred so far on Ganga under GAP and sewage treatment capacity of 1064 mld (million litres per day) has been created.
Q1. Jute is known as an important fiber crop; mention some of its uses.
Ans: Jute is also known as the 'Golden Fiber'. Jute is used to make gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets, etc.
Q2. Write the main characteristics of the Intensive Subsistence Agriculture.
Ans: Following are some of the main characteristics of the Intensive Subsistence Agriculture practiced in India:
(a) This type of farming is practiced in thickly populated areas.
(b) In this activity, farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour.
(c) There is huge population pressure on this type of farming.
(d) It is labour intensive.
(e) In a year 2 to 3 crops are grown.
(f) This involves high degree of use of biochemical inputs and irrigation for obtaining high production.
Q3. Explain the climatic conditions required for rubber cultivation in India.
Ans: Following are some of the climatic conditions required for rubber cultivation in India:
(a) Rubber is a plantation crop.
(b) Rubber is a crop of equatorial region but it is also grown tropical and subtropical regions.
(c) It needs moist and humid climate.
(d) It requires a temperature above 25°C.
(e) Annual rainfall above 200 cm.
(f) Major producers: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman & Nicobar islands and also in the Garo hills of Meghalaya.
(g) India is the fourth largest rubber producer in the world.
Q4. Describe the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of cotton in India.
Ans: Following are the geographical conditions required to grow cotton in India:
(a) Cotton requires high temperature more than 25°C.
(b) It requires light rainfall: 60 – 85 cm annually.
(c) Cotton requires 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
(d) It grows best on the drier parts of black cotton soil and requires at least 6 to 8 months.
(e) Major producers: Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
(f) India was the second largest producer of cotton after China.
Q5. Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
Ans: Following are some of the programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers:
(a) Green Revolution
(b) White Revolution
(c) Land Reform
(d) Establishment of Grameen Banks, Cooperative Societies.
(e) Providing loan facilities at lower rates of interest.
(f) Kissan Credit Cards (KCC).
(g) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on radio and television. For e.g. Krishi Darshan.
(h) The Government also introduced "Minimum Support Price, Remunerative and Procurement Prices for important crops" to check the exploitation of farmers by the speculators and middlemen.
Q6. What is plantation cropping? Mention some of the important features of the plantation cropping in India.
Ans: Plantation cropping is a type of commercial farming, where a single crop is grown on a large area. Following are some of the important features of the plantation cropping in India:
(a) More capital and a large number of workers are required.
(b) Final output of the plantation is used in various industries.
(c) Important plantation crops of India are: tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc.
(d) Plantation requires a well developed network of transportation, communication, processing industries and a good market.
Q7. Elaborate the cropping seasons of India.
Ans: India has three cropping seasons, i.e. Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.
(i) Crops are sown in winters between October to December and harvested between April to June.
(ii) Some of the major crops of this season are: wheat, barley, peas, gram, and oilseeds.
(iii) Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are the important producers of rabi crops.
(i) Crops are sown at the beginning of monsoon and harvested after rain i.e. between September to October.
(ii) Kharif crops are also known as summer crops.
(iii) Some of the major crops of this season are: rice, maize, jowar, bajra, jute.
(iv) Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are important rice growing states.
(v) In Assam, West Bengal and Orissa; three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are called Aus, Aman and Boro.
(i) In between Rabi and Kharif crops zaid crops.
(ii) Some of the major crops of this season are: watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.
(iii) Sugarcane is planted in this season but takes almost a year to grow.
Q8. Mention the geographical conditions required to grow maize crop in India.
Ans: Maize is used as both food and fodder crop. It is also known as "Corn". Following are the geographical conditions required to grow millet crops in India:
(a) Maize is basically a kharif crop. But in states like Bihar it is grown in rabi season.
(b) It requires a temperature range of 21°-27°C.
(c) Annual rainfall between 50 cm - 100 cm.
(d) It grows best in old alluvial soil,
(e) Major producers: Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
Q9. Highlight the key factors of coffee production in India. Which variety of Indian coffee is well known for its good quality throughout the world?
Ans: Following are the key factors of coffee production in India:
(a) Coffee is a plantation crop.
(b) It is the second most important beverage crop in India.
(c) Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop.
(d) India produced 3.2% of the total world coffee production.
(e) The cultivation of coffee was initially introduced on the Baba Budan Hills.
(f) Major producers: Nilgiris in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Indian coffee is well known for its good quality throughout the world. The Arabica variety of coffee was brought from Yemen and the thereon produced in India.
Q10. Differentiate between Subsistence Farming and Commercial Farming.