Q1. Define: (a) Manufacturing (b) Industries.
Ans: (a) Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw material to more valuable products is called "Manufacturing".
(b) Industry: Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.
Q2. What is Agglomeration Economies?
Ans: Many Industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centre's known as agglomeration economies.
Q3. Define classification of industries on the basis of Ownership.
Ans: Following is classification of industries on the basis of Ownership:
(a) Private Sector Industries: Owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. Bajaj Auto, Reliance, etc.
(b) Public Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the government. E.g. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. (BHEL), SAIL, etc.
(c) Joint Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. OIL (Oil India Ltd.), Maruti Udyog Limited., Gujarat State Fertilizers, Cochin Refineries, etc.
(d) Co-operative Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Mutually they get the resources and share the profit and losses. E.g. Sugar industry in Maharashtra, Coir industry in Kerala, etc.
Q4. Highlight the Problems faced by cotton textile industries in India.
Ans: Following are some of the problems faced by cotton textile industries in India:
(a) Unpredictable power supply.
(b) Obsolete machinery.
(c) Low output of labour.
(d) Stiff competition with the synthetic fiber.
Q5. Describe the factors responsible for the development of jute industry in the Hugli basin.
Ans: Given below are the factors responsible for the development of jute industry in the Hugli basin:
(a) Closeness of the jute producing areas.
(b) Inexpensive water transport.
(c) Good network of railways, roadways and waterways.
(d) Abundant water for processing raw jute.
(e) Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
(f) Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.
Q6. Mention the key points of Automobile Industry in India.
Ans: Some of the key points of Automobile Industries in India are as follows:
(a) Almost all types of vehicles are manufactured in India.
(b) After liberalization in 1991, many automobile manufacturers set up their base in India.
(c) With the launch of contemporary models, India became an attractive market for automobiles.
(d) At present, there are 15 manufacturers of cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of two and three-wheelers.
(e) Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Sanand, Pantnagar, etc. are the major centers of automobile industry.
Q7. Describe the characteristics and distribution of iron and steel industries in India.
Ans: Following are the characteristics and distribution of iron and steel industries in India:
(a) This is basic industry.
(b) These industries are the feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries.
(c) Due to this, production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country's development.
(d) India is 9th among the world crude steel producers and produces 32.8 million tons of steel.
(e) India is the largest producer of sponge iron. But per capita consumption of steel is only 32 kg per annum.
(f) At present, there are 10 primary integrated steel plants in India. Additionally, there are many mini steel plants in the country.
(g) SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited) is the major public sector company in this sector, while TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) is the major private sector company in this industry.
(h) Most of the iron and steel industries are in the Chotanagpur plateau region. This region has plenty of low cost iron ore, high grade raw materials, cheap labour and good connectivity through railways and roadways.
Q8. Explain different types of pollutions caused by industries.
Ans: Industries are responsible for majorly four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
(a) Air Pollution: High proportion of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide create air pollution. Suspended particulate matters also create problems. Smoke is emitted from chimneys of various factories. Some industry also pose the risk of leak of hazardous chemicals; the way it happened during the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Air pollution has adverse effect on human health, animals, plants, buildings, and the atmosphere as a whole.
(b) Water Pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents cause water pollution. Paper, pulp, chemical, textile, dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries, etc. are the main culprits of water pollution.
(c) Thermal Pollution: It occurs when hot water from factories or thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. This plays havoc with the aquatic life.
Waste from nuclear power plants contains highly radioactive materials and it needs to be properly stored. Any leakage of radioactive material can cause short term and long term damages to humans as well as to other life forms.
(d) Noise Pollution: Noise pollution can result in constant irritation, hypertension and hearing impairment. Factory equipments, generators, electric drills, etc. are the major sources of noise pollution.
Q9. What different steps can be taken to minimize the environmental degradation done by the industries?
Ans: Given below are some of the steps that can be taken to minimize the environmental degradation done by the industries:
(a) Chimneys should be fitted with electrostatic precipitators to prevent release of suspended particulate matters.
(b) Water should be reused and recycled in the industry. This will help in minimizing the use of freshwater.
(c) Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
(d) Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released in rivers and ponds.
Q10. On the map of India locate the following:
(A) Cotton Textile Industry: MUMBAI
(B) Cotton Textile Industry: AHMEDABAD
(C) Cotton Textile Industry: KANPUR
(D) Cotton Textile Industry: MADURAI
(E) Iron and Steel Plant: JAMSHEDPUR
(F) Iron and Steel Plant: BHILAI
(G) Iron and Steel Plant: VISHAKHAPATNAM
(H) Iron and Steel Plant: SALEM
(I) Software Technology Park: BHUBANESHWAR
(J) Software Technology Park: HYDERABAD
(K) Software Technology Park: BANGALURU
(L) Software Technology Park: THIRUVANANTHAPURAM
Q1. Define Virgin Vegetation.
Ans: The vegetation which has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time is called virgin vegetation. The virgin vegetation, which are purely Indian are known as endemic or indigenous species but those which have come from outside India are termed as exotic plants.
Q2. Define an ecosystem.
Ans: All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent on each other. The plants and animals, along with their physical environment make the ecosystem. Interrelation between plants and animals in the natural environment is called Ecosystem.
Q3. What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?
Ans: Factors responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India are:
(a) Relief: Land and soil
(b) Climate: Temperature, Humidity, Photoperiod and Precipitation.
Q4. What is a bio-reserve? Name the four biosphere reserves in India which have been included in the world network of Biosphere reserves.
Ans: A biosphere reserve is an area of land or water that is protected by law in order to support the conservation of ecosystems, as well as the sustainability of mankind's impact on the environment.
Four biosphere reserves in India which have been included in the world network of Biosphere reserves are:
(a) Sunderbans in West Bengal
(b) Nanda Devi in Uttaranchal,
(c) The Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu
(d) The Nilgiris (Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu).
Q5. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?
Ans: Species of some plants and animals are on the verge of extinction as their population has decreased considerably. Such species are known as "Endangered Species".
Following are the reasons behind species becoming endangered:
(a) Increase in population.
(b) Urbanization and Industrialization.
(c) Large scale deforestation.
(e) Hunting for pleasure and commercial purpose, etc.
Q6. Name different types of Vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.
Ans: There are five major types of vegetation in India: Tropical Rainforests, Tropical Deciduous Forests, Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs, Montane Forests and Mangrove Forests.
(a) The forests in the mountainous areas are called montane forest.
(b) Different types of vegetation are found at different altitudes in the mountains.
(i) The wet temperate type of forest is found between a height of 1000 and 2000 meter. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oak and chestnut abound in such forests.
(ii) Between the heights of 1500 and 3000 meters, Coniferous trees; like Pine, Deodar, Silver Fir, Cedar, etc. are found.
(iii) At the height of 3600 meters, alpine vegetation is found; such as Silver Fir, Junipers, Pines, Birches, etc. are found.
(iv) At the higher altitude Tundra vegetations are found; such as Mosses and Lichens.
(c) Kashmir Stag, Wild Sheep, Yak, Snow Leopard, Bear, Rare Red Panda, etc. are the common animals in these forests.
Q7. Distinguish between Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs Forest and Mangrove Forests.
Q8. Distinguish between Tropical Evergreen Forest and Deciduous Forests.
Q9. In India, what are the various steps taken to conserve forest and wildlife?
Ans: Following are few steps that have been taken to conserve forest and wildlife:
(a) National Forest Policy framed by the government should be implemented.
(b) National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Bioreserves, Botanical Gardens have been setup.
(c) Special Projects (E.g. Project Tiger, Project Elephant, etc.).
(d) Celebration of Van Mahotsav. Every National festival is followed by tree plantation ceremony.
(e) Controlling of deforestation and overgrazing. Large scale afforestation or planting of tress is undertaken.
(f) Social Awareness Programmes to be implemented.
(g) Wildlife Protection Act 1972.
Q10. On the outline map of India, label the following:
(A) Four Biosphere reserves in India, included in the world network of Biosphere reserves.
(B) Two National Parks each in Northern parts of the Country.
(C) Two National Parks each in Southern parts of the Country.
(D) Two National Parks each in Eastern parts of the Country.
(E) Two National Parks each in Western parts of the Country.
Q1. Name the controls affecting the climate of any place.
Ans: There are six major controls of the climate of any place. They are:
(a) Latitude (b) Altitude (c) Pressure and Wind System
(d) Distance from the Sea (e) Ocean Currents (f) Relief Features.
Q2. What are the elements of weather and climate?
Ans: There are the five major elements of weather and climate, i.e. Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, Humidity and Precipitation
Q3. What are Jet Streams?
Ans: Fast flowing air currents in a narrow zone in the upper atmosphere are known jet streams.
Q4. Define monsoons. What do you understand by "break" in monsoon?
Ans: The seasonal reversal in wind direction during a year is called monsoon. The word "Monsoon" has been derived from an Arabic word called "Mausim" which means "Season".
Monsoon tends to have 'breaks' in rainfall; which means that there are wet and dry spells in between. The monsoon rains take place only for a few days at a time and then come the rainless intervals.
Q5. Why the monsoon is considered a unifying bond?
Ans: Following are few of the reasons why the monsoon is considered as a unifying bond in India:
(a) The Indian landscape, its flora and fauna, etc. are highly influenced by the monsoon.
(b) The entire agricultural calendar in India is governed by the monsoon.
(c) Most of the festivals in India are related to agricultural cycle. These festivals may be known by different names in different parts of the country, but their celebration is decided by the monsoon.
(d) It is also said that the river valleys which carry the rainwater also unite as a single river valley unit.
Q6. Discuss the mechanism of monsoons.
Ans: Following are the factors responsible for the mechanism of monsoon:
(a) The Sun causes differential heating and cooling of land and water. This creates low pressure on the landmass of India and high pressure over the ocean surface.
(b) The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is normally positioned about 5°N of the equator. It shifts over the Ganga plains during summer. It is also known as the monsoon trough during the monsoon season.
(c) The high pressure area, east of Madagascar is approximately 20°S over the Indian Ocean. This area affects the Indian Monsoon.
(d) The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer. This results in strong vertical air currents and formation of low pressure over the plateau. This low pressure zone is about 9 km above the sea level.
(e) The westerly jet stream move to the north of the Himalayas, and the tropical easterly jet stream moves over the Indian Peninsula during summer.
(f) The periodic change in pressure conditions between Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean that is known as the Southern Oscillation or SO also affects the monsoon.
(g) The difference in pressure over Tahiti (18°S/149°W) in the Pacific Ocean and Darwin (12°30'S/131°E) lies in northern Australia predicts the intensity of the monsoons. If the pressure differences are negative, it means a below average and late monsoon.
Q7. Give an account of weather conditions and characteristics of the cold season.
Ans: Following are the features of the cold season:
(a) The winter season begins from mid-November and till February; in northern India. December and January are the coldest months.
(b) The temperature goes low in the northern plains, while moderate in Chennai.
(c) As the northeast trade winds blow from land to sea, most parts of the country experience a dry season.
(d) The weather is usually marked by clear sky, low temperatures and low humidity and weak variable winds.
(e) The inflow of the cyclonic disturbances from the west and the northwest is a characteristic feature of the cold weather over the northern plains.
(f) These low-pressure over the Mediterranean Sea and Western Asia move into India that causes winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains.
(g) The winter rainfall is in small amount but is very important for the rabi crop. This rainfall is locally known as mahawat.
(h) The peninsular region does not get a well-defined winter because of the moderating influence of the sea.
Q8. Write the characteristics of the retreating monsoon or the transition season.
Ans: Following are the characteristics of the retreating monsoon or the transition season:
(a) During October-November, the sun apparently moves towards the south. Thus, the monsoon trough over the northern plains becomes weaker and the south-west monsoon winds start withdrawing. The monsoon withdraws from the northern plains by the beginning of October.
(b) The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature. Day temperatures are high, nights are cool and pleasant.
(c) High temperature and humidity, makes the weather quite uncomfortable during the day. This is commonly known as "October Heat".
(d) The temperature begins to fall rapidly in northern India by the second half of October.
(e) The low-pressure conditions over northwestern India move to the Bay of Bengal by early November.
(f) This shift leads to cyclonic depressions over the Andaman Sea. These cyclones usually cross the eastern coasts of India and cause heavy and widespread rain. These cyclones may also arrive at the Coasts of Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh.
(g) These cyclones contribute to the bulk of the rainfall of the Coromandel Coast.
Q9. Describe the onset and withdrawal of the monsoons in India.
(a) Generally, the monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian peninsular by the first week of June. Subsequently, it divides into two branches, viz. the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch.
(b) The Arabian Sea branch reaches Mumbai about ten days later, i.e. around 10th of June. The Bay of Bengal rapidly advances and reaches Assam in the first week of June.
(c) The monsoon winds are then deflected by high mountains and move towards west over the Ganga plains. The Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon arrives over Surashtra-Kuchchh and central part of the country by mid-June.
(d) The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal branches of the monsoon merge over the northwestern part of the Ganga plains.
(e) Delhi usually receives monsoon showers from the Bay of Bengal branch by the end of June.
(f) Western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, and eastern Rajasthan experience monsoon by the first week of July. The monsoon reaches Himachal Pradesh and the rest of the country by mid-July.
Withdrawal: Withdrawal or the retreat of the monsoon is a more gradual process.
(a) The monsoon begins to withdraw from the northwestern states of India by early September.
(b) The monsoon withdraws completely from the northern part of the Indian peninsular by mid-October.
(c) The monsoon withdraws from the rest of the country by early December.
(d) The islands receive the very first monsoon showers from the first week of April to the first week of May; progressively from south to north. The withdrawal of monsoon in the islands takes place from the first week of December to the first week of January.
Q10. On an outline map of India, show the following:
(a) Areas receiving rainfall over 400 cms.
(b) Areas receiving less than 20 cms of rainfall.
(c) The direction of the south-west monsoon over India.
(d) The Wettest place of the World.
(e) City in the eastern coast having an average temperature between 24-25 degree Celsius in the winter season.
Q1. What is a mineral?
Ans: A homogenous, naturally occurring substance with definable internal structure is called mineral.
Q2. What are the properties of minerals?
Ans: Following are the properties of minerals:
(a) Minerals are unevenly distributed throughout the world.
(b) Minerals take millions of year to form and are present in impure form.
(c) Minerals are non-renewable 'exhaustible' resources.
Q3. Mention the varieties of coal found in India.
Ans: Following are the different varieties of coal found in India:
(a) Anthracite: This is the highest quality hard coal.
(b) Bituminous: Coal which was formed because of increased temperature and was buried very deep is called bituminous coal. This is the most popular coal for commercial use. High grade bituminous coal is ideal for use in metallurgy.
(c) Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal. It is soft and has high moisture content. Neyveli in Tamil Nadu has the main reserves of lignite coal. This type of coal is used for electricity generation.
Q4. Write a note on Bauxite an ore to Aluminum.
Ans: (a) Bauxite is clay like substance, out of which aluminum is obtained.
(b) Amarkantak Plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni are the main areas of bauxite deposits.
(c) In 2009-10 Orissa was the largest producer of bauxite in India with 34.97%.
(d) Panchpatmali in Koraput district is the most important centre of bauxite deposit in Orissa.
(e) Aluminum is incredibly popular because it is Lightweight, Strong, Durable, Ductile, Malleable, etc.
(f) Aluminum is used in: Automobiles, Aircraft, Spacecraft, Packaging (Cans, Foil, frame, etc). Food and beverage containers, etc.
Q5. Write a note on Geo Thermal Energy.
Ans: Geo thermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth. Geothermal energy exists because; the Earth grows more and more hot with increasing depth. Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depths. Groundwater in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot. It is so hot that when it rises to the earth's surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity.
There are several hundred hot springs in India, which could be used to generate electricity. Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy. One is located in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga Valley, Ladakh.
Q6. Differentiate between Hydro Electricity and Thermal Electricity.
Q7. Minerals are essential part of our life, it is important to know about the occurrence of minerals. Mention different modes where minerals occur?
Ans: Minerals are usually found in ores. Minerals generally occur in the following forms:
(a) In Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks: The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger occurrences are called lodes. They are usually formed when minerals in liquid/molten and gaseous forms are forced upwards through cavities towards the earth's surface. Examples: tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc.
(b) In Sedimentary Rocks: In these rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers. Coal, iron ore, gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt are the minerals found in sedimentary rocks.
(c) By Decomposition of Surface Rocks: Decomposition of surface rocks and removal of soluble constituents leaves a residual mass of weathered material which contains ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.
(d) As Alluvial Deposits: These minerals are found in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called placer deposits. They generally contain those minerals which are not corroded by water. Examples; gold, silver, tin, platinum, etc.
(e) In Ocean Water: Most of the minerals in ocean water are too widely diffused to be of economic importance. But common salt, magnesium and bromine are mainly derived from ocean waters.
Q8. Describe the distribution of iron ore in India.
Ans: Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. The major iron ore belts in India are:
(a) Orissa Jharkhand Belt: Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa have high grade hematite ore. Additionally, hematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.
(b) Durg Bastar Chandrapur Belt: This belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. The Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh have very high grade hematite ore. This hilly range has 14 deposits of super high grade hematite ore. Iron from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakapatnam port.
(c) Bellary Chitradurga Chikmaglur Tumkur Belt: This belt lies in Karnataka. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats are a 100 percent export unit. The ore from these mines is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.
(d) Maharashtra Goa Belt: This belt includes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. The ores in these mines are not of very high quality. They are exported through Marmagao port.
Q9. Differentiate between Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
Q10. Draw a flow chart to explain the classification of minerals.
Q11. On the map of India locate the following:
(A) Iron Ore Mines: Mayurbhanj
(B) Iron Ore Mines: Kudremukh
(C) Bauxite Deposits: The Amarkantak Plateau
(D) Bauxite Deposits: Orissa: Panchpatmali Deposits In Koraput
(E) Mica Mines: Ajmer
(F) Mica Mines: Gaya
(G) Coal Mines: Bokaro
(H) Coal Mines: Neyvali
(I) Oil Fields: Digboi
(J) Oil Fields: Mumbai High
(K) Thermal Power Plant: Ramagundam
(L) Thermal Power Plant: Tuticorin
(M) Nuclear Power Plant: Rawat Bhata
(N) Nuclear Power Plant: Kalpakkam
Q1. How did India's Green Revolution benefit farmers?
Ans: Green Revolution was a period when the productivity of global agriculture increased drastically as a result of new advances. During this time period, new chemical fertilizers and synthetic herbicides and pesticides were created. The chemical fertilizers made it possible to supply crops with extra nutrients and, therefore, increase yield. The newly developed synthetic herbicides and pesticides controlled weeds, deterred or kill insects, and prevented diseases, which also resulted in higher productivity.
Benefits of Green Revolution
As a result of the Green Revolution and the introduction of chemical fertilizers, synthetic herbicides and pesticides, high-yield crops, and the method of multiple cropping, the agricultural industry was able to produce much larger quantities of food. This increase in productivity made it possible to feed the growing human population.
Q2. What is the White Revolution?
Ans: In India, Gujarat and Rajasthan had excess production as compared to local consumption of milk. In 1970, the National Dairy Development Board initiated activities like building veterinary centres, milk chilling centres, processing plants and strengthened the milk cooperative movement based on Anand Milk Union Limited (AMUL).
This was done through Operation Flood, with aid from the Food and Agriculture Organisation in the form of butter oil and milk powder. This ushered in the White Revolution in India, making it the world's largest milk producing country.
White revolution is also known as operation flood.
Q1. Which two peninsular rivers flow towards the west?
Ans: The Narmada and the Tapi are the two major peninsular rivers which flow towards the west and drains into the Arabian Sea.
Q2. Explain the following: (a) Drainage Basin (b) Water Divide (c) River System
Ans: (a) Drainage Basin: The area drained by a single river system is known as Drainage Basin. E.g. Basin of the River Ganga and its tributaries.
(b) Water Divide: Any elevated area such as an upland that separates two drainage basins is called a water divide. E.g. Ambala is located on the water divide between The Indus and The Ganga.
(c) River System: Small streams flowing from different directions come together to form the main course of the river and ultimately, drains into the seas or the oceans. Thus, the river along with its tributaries is known as River System. E.g. The Indus River System.
Q3. Write a note on National River Conservation Plan (NRCP).
Ans: The activities of Ganga Action Plan (GAP) phase-I, initiated in 1985, were declared closed on 31st March 2000. The Steering Committee of the National River Conservation Authority reviewed the progress of the GAP and necessary correction on the basis of lessons learnt and experiences gained from GAP Phase-I. These have been applied to the major polluted rivers of the country under the NRCP.
The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-II, has been merged with the NRCP. The expanded NRCP now covers 152 towns located along 27 interstate rivers in 16 states. Under this action plan, pollution abatement works are being taken up in 57 towns. A total of 215 schemes of pollution abatement have been sanctioned. So far, 69 schemes have been completed under this action plan. A million litres of sewage is targeted to be intercepted, diverted and treated.
Q4. Define lake. Explain the different types of lakes.
Ans: A large water body which is surrounded by land is called a lake.
Following are the different types of lakes:
(a) Ox-bow Lake: A lake formed when a meandering river is cut off from the mainstream. The shape of this lake resembles an ox-bow.
(b) Lagoon: When the lake is formed by spits and bars in coastal areas, it is called a lagoon. Chilika lake, Pulicat lake, Kolleru lake, etc. are examples of lagoon.
(c) Glacial Lake: A lake formed by melting of glacier is called a glacial lake. Most of the lakes in the Himalayan region are glacial lakes. Wular lake (Jammu & Kashmir) is the largest freshwater lake in India. It was formed by tectonic activity.
(d) Man Made Lakes: Gobind Sagar is a man-made reservoir situated in Bilaspur District, Himachal Pradesh.
Q5. Explain the different types of drainage patterns.
Ans: Depending on the slope of land, underlying rock structure and climate of an area, the streams in a drainage basin form certain patters. Different types of drainage pattern are as follows:
(a) Dendritic Drainage Pattern: When the river channel follows the slope of the terrain, it develops dendritic pattern. The stream and its tributaries resemble the branches of a tree. Hence, it is called dendritic pattern.
(b) Trellis Drainage Pattern: When a river is joined by its tributaries at almost right angles, it develops a trellis pattern. Trellis pattern develops where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other.
(c) Rectangular Drainage Pattern: When rocks are strongly joined, then rectangular pattern develops.
(d) Radial Drainage Pattern: When the streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure, a radial pattern is developed.
Q6. Rivers and lakes hold a great importance in the country's economy; mention some economic benefits of rivers and lakes.
Economic benefits of rivers:
1. Rivers have been a source of food since pre-history, almost all the civilizations developed along the river banks.
2. Rivers are also used for irrigation, hydro-power generation.
3. Rivers are used for navigation. They provide the cheapest inland means of transport.
4. Water from the river is the basic natural resource essential for various day-to-day activities of human beings.
5. It is also a rich source of fresh water fish.
Benefits of a Lakes:
1. A lake helps in preventing flood by regulating the flow of river.
2. During dry seasons, a lake helps to maintain an even flow of the river.
3. Lakes can also be used for generating hydel power.
4. Tourism development.
5. Maintain aquatic ecosystem.
Q7. Explain the major features of the following:
(a) The Ganga River System (b) The Indus River System
(c) The Godavari River System (d) The Narmada River System
(a) The Ganga River System:
• The river Ganga in its origin state is known as Bhagirathi. It is fed by the Gangotri Glacier.
• The total length of river Ganga is 2500 km.
• Bhagirathi is joined by Alaknanda at Devprayag in Uttarakhand. Ganga emerges from the mountains on to the plains at Haridwar.
• Yamuna, Ghaghara, Gandak and Kosi, Chambal, Betwa and Son are the major tributaries of Ganga. River Yamuna meets Ganga at Allahabad.
• After taking waters from various tributaries, Ganga flows towards east till Farakka (West Bengal). The river bifurcates at Farakka. The Bhagirathi-Hooghly (a distributary) flows towards south to the Bay of Bengal.
• The mainstream flows southwards into Bangladesh; where it is joined by the Brahmaputra. It is known as Meghna.
• Finally, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of Bengal forming the Sunderban Delta.
(b) The Indus River System:
• The river Indus originates in Tibet; near Lake Mansarowar. It enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu & Kashmir.
• Zaskar, Nubra, Shyok and Hunza are the main tributaries which join the Indus in Kashmir region.
• After flowing through Baltistan and Gilgit, the Indus emerges from the mountains at Attock.
• Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum join together and enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan.
• After that, the Indus flows southwards and finally reaches the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi.
• Indus is 2900 km long.
• The Indus river basin covers parts of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The rest of the portion is in Pakistan.
(c) The Godavari River System:
• It originates from the slopes of the Western Ghats in Nasik district of Maharashtra and drains into the Bay of Bengal.
• This is the longest Peninsular River. This river is popularly known as "Dakshin Ganga".
• The Godavari is about 1500 km long.
• The Godavari basin covers parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
• The Purna, the Wardha, the Pranhita, the Manjra, the Wainganga, the Penganga, etc. are the main tributaries of Godavari River.
(d) The Narmada River System:
• The Narmada raises in the Amarkantak hills (Maikal Range) in the Madhya Pradesh.
• The river flows towards the west through rift valleys. The Narmada basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
• All the tributaries of the Narmada are very short. Most of the tributaries join the Narmada at right angles.
• The river travels a distance of 1,312 km.
• The major tributaries of the Narmada River are the Banjar River, the Barna River, the Tawa River.
Q8. Discuss the significant difference between the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.
Q9. Compare the east flowing and the west flowing rivers of the peninsular plateau.
Q10. Map Work.
(a) Ganga River (b) Satluj River (c) Damodar River (d) Krishna River
(e) Narmada River (f) Tapi River (g) Mahanadi River (h) Brahmaputra River
(i) Indus River (j) Yamuna River (k) Chilika Lake (l) Sambhar Lake
(m) Wular Lake (n) Pulicat Lake (o) Kolleru Lake (P) Vembanad Lake
Ans: Please refer the map given below and label properly on the map.