Q1. Define different "Gauge (in meters)" of railway tracks can be found in India.
Ans: In India generally we find three different gauges of railway tracks:
(a) Broad Gauge - 1.676 meters
(b) Meter Gauge - 1.000 meter
(c) Narrow Gauge - 0.762 meter & 0.610 meter
Q2. Describe about the first port which was developed soon after independence?
Ans: Kandla port was the first port which was developed soon after independence.
(a) Kandla port was developed to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the wake of loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after the partition.
(b) Kandla is a tidal port.
(c) It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrial belt stretching across the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Q3. Mention any three problems faced by Indian Railways.
Ans: Following are some of the problems faced by the Indian Railways:
(a) Many passengers travel without tickets.
(b) Thefts and damaging of railway property has not yet stopped completely.
(c) People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this causes heavy damage to the railway.
Q4. Highlight some of the key points of the India Postal Service.
Ans: Given below are some of the key points of the India Postal Service:
(a) The Indian postal network is the largest in the world.
(b) It handles parcels as well as personal written communications.
(c) Cards and envelopes are considered first-class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
(d) The second-class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport.
(e) To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently. They are called Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.
Q5. Highlight the merits of road transportation against any other means of transportation.
Ans: Following are the positives of road transport against the other means of transportation:
(a) Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
(b) Roads can pass through comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
(c) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
(d) Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
(e) It also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower.
(f) Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.
Q6. Describe the classification of roads according to their capacity.
Ans: Roads are classified in the following six classes according to their capacity:
(a) Golden Quadrilateral: The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane super highways. These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
(b) National Highways: National highways link extreme parts of the country. These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
(c) State Highways: Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as state highways. These roads are constructed and maintained by the state Public Works Department (PWD) in state and union territories.
(d) District Roads: These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.
(e) Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category. These roads received special momentum under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
(f) Border Roads: These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas. Constructions and maintenance of these roads is done by Border Roads Organization, a government of India undertaking.
Q7. Mention three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country.
Ans: The three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country are:
(a) From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
(b) (b) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and other places.
(c) (c) Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.
Q8. Describe the waterways that have been declared as the national waterways by the government of India.
Ans: Following are the waterways that have been declared as the national waterways by the government of India:
(a) The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km) - N.W. No. 1
(b) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km) – N.W. No. 2
(c) The west-coast canal in Kerala (Kottapurma - Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals) - 205 km – N.W. No. 3
(d) Specified stretches of the Godavari, Krishna Rivers alongwith Kakinada, Puducherry stretch of canals – 1078 km – N.W. No – 4
(e) Specified stretches of the river Brahmani along with Matai River, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and east coast canal – 588 km – N.W. No - 5
(f) There are some other inland waterways, like: Mandavi, Zuari and Cumberjua, Sunderbans, Barak, backawaters of Kerala and tidal stretches of some other rivers.
Q9. What is International Trade? What are the two major components of International Trade? What is balance of trade?
Ans: The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade. The market is the place where such exchanges take place. Trade between two countries is called international trade.
Import and export are the two main components of international trade.
(a) Export: Exports are the goods and services produced in one country and sold to another country.
(b) Import: Imports are foreign goods and services bought by a country.
Balance of Trade: The difference between export and import of a country.
When the value of exports is higher than value of imports then this is termed as favourable balance of trade.
On the other hand, when the value of imports is higher than value of exports, then this is termed as unfavourable balance of trade.
Q10. How tourism has helped in growth of Indian economy?
(a) Tourism in India has grown largely over the last three decades.
(b) Foreign tourist's arrivals in the country witnessed an increase of 11.8 per cent during the year 2010 as against the year 2009, contributing Rs 64,889 crore of foreign exchange in 2010.
(c) 5.78 million foreign tourists visited India in 2010.
(d) More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
(e) Tourism also promotes national integration, provides support to local handicrafts and cultural recreations.
(f) It also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.
(g) Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, eco tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism.
Q11. On the map of India locate the following:
Major Sea Ports:
(C) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(E) New Mangalore
(M) Amritsar (Raja Sansi)
(N) Delhi (Indira Gandhi International)
(O) Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji)
(P) Thiruvanantapuram (Nedimbacherry)
(Q) Chennai (Meenam Bakkam)
(R) Kolkata (Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose)
(S) Hyderabad (Rajiv Gandhi)
Ans: Locate and label the placed mentioned above by using the map given below:
Q1. What are considered as the lifelines of national economy?
Q2. Name the classification of roads.
Q3. Name the different organizations responsible for the construction and upkeep of different types of roads located in India.
Q4. Name the classification of roads on the basis of the type of material used.
Q5. What is Road Density?
Q6. What are the major problems faced by Indian Roads?
Q7. Write a note on the first train of India.
Q8. Name the different rail gauge found in India.
Q9. In how many zones Indian railways have been divided?
Q10. What are the major problems faced by Indian Railways?
Q11. Name the three important networks of pipeline transportation in India.
Q12. Highlight any five key features of waterways.
Q13. How many waterways have been declared as the national waterways by the government of India? Name them.
Q14. There are how many major and minor sea ports in India?
Q15. Which was the first port developed soon after independence?
Q16. What is the total length of coastline in India?
Q17. Name the different sea ports of India used for exporting iron ore to different parts of the world.
Q18. When was the air transportation nationalized in India?
Q19. Name few of the airlines operating in India.
Q20. Highlight important airports in India.
Q21. Name the six mail channels that have been introduced recently for the quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities in India.
Q22. Highlight major means of Personal communication and mass communication in the country.
Q23. Mention key features of the Indian Postal Service.
Q24. Write a short note on All India Radio (Akashwani) and Doordarshan.
Q25. Describe the role of newspapers in India.
Q26. What is international trade?
Q27. Define: (a) Import (b) Export (c) Balance of Trade
Q28. Write a note on tourism in India.
Q29. Which industry in India has emerged in last fifteen years?
Q30. What are the two main components of international trade?
Q1. Define: (a) Adolescence (b) Census (c) Death Rate (d) Birth Rate
(a) Adolescence: Adolescence is a period in which a person is no longer a child and not yet an adult. Such persons are grouped in the age group of 10 to 19 years.
(b) Census: The official collection of population data by all means is known as Census. This is conducted once in ten years. In 1872, first population census of India was conducted, but the first complete census was conducted in 1881. Currently, we are following 2011 census, this is the fifteenth census starting from 1872.
(c) Death Rate: The number of deaths per 1000 persons is called death rate.
(d) Birth Rate: The number of live births per 1000 persons is called birth rate.
Q2. What is age structure or age composition?
Ans: Number of people in different age groups in country is called age structure or age composition of the population. Population of a nation is generally grouped into three broad categories:
(a) Children (Below 15 years of age): Economically unproductive and needs to be provided with the necessities of life (food, cloth, education, etc.)
(b) Working age (15 – 59 years): Economically and biologically productive
(c) Aged (Above 59 years of age): They can be economically productive even after retirement.
Q3. What are the three major aspects of population study?
Ans: The three major questions to be answered when we study about population are:
(a) Population Size and Distribution.
(b) Population Growth and Process of Population Change.
(c) Characteristics or qualities of the population.
Q4. What is meant by sex ratio? Give reasons for low sex ratio in India.
Ans: Number of female per thousand male is called sex ratio. Following are some of the reasons (mindset of the people) for low sex ratio in India:
(a) Girls in India are taken as a liability, one day she will get married and leave the house; Parents have to pay a huge dowry.
(b) Safety and security is a great concern for family.
(c) India is a male dominated country.
(d) Female Feticide, girl child are killed before her birth.
(e) Females often face Malnutrition, leading to ill health.
Q5. Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
Ans: The rate of population growth in India is declining since 1981 because:
(a) The family planning programme initiated by the government made a great impact on the mindset of the people.
(b) Educational programmes have improved the literacy rate helping in increasing the awareness about the benefits of smaller family size.
(c) Parents became aware and wanted to give better quality of life to their children, i.e. good education, food, clothing, health, etc
Q6. What is the relation between occupational structure and development?
Ans: Occupational structure has got a great impact on the development of any country. In India more than 60% of the population is engaged in the agricultural activities and thus, are still dependent on the primary sector for employment, which is one of the reasons for lack of development in India. The developed nations suggest that when a greater portion of population engages in secondary and tertiary activities, it leads to great development.
Q7. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Ans: It is rightly said, a healthy mind resides in a healthy body. Human resource is the most important resource for the development of a country. A healthy population helps in building a productive workforce for the country. If the health of the population is properly looked after, people can put in more number of working hours and thus, the production level of the country can be increased. Even the non-productive age group needs to be healthy to reduce the burden of healthcare. Healthy children would grow into healthy adults and would be able to contribute better in the economy. Healthy elders would mean less drain on the resources.
Q8. What is migration? How migration leads to population change?
Ans: Movement of people from one place to another; in search of livelihood is called migration. Migration can be classified into two:
(a) Migration within the country is called internal migration.
(b) Migration between two countries is called international migration.
Internal migration has no change on population size but it changes the population composition of a particular area. International migration can lead to a growth or decline in population; depending on the degree of immigration and emigration.
In India, Poverty and lack of employment opportunities in rural areas work as 'push' factors which result in migration to urban areas. Better employment opportunities in urban areas work as 'pull' factors for migration. Due to increased migration towards urban areas, the share of urban population has increased from 17.29% in 1951 to 27.78% in 2001.
Q9. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?
Ans: The new national population policy of 2000 was announced by the Government of India, its main features are:
(a) Redress the unmet needs for basic reproductive and child health services, supplies and infrastructure.
(b) Free and compulsory school education up to age 14, for both boys and girls.
(c) Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
(d) Reduce maternal mortality ratio to below 100 per 100,000 live births.
(e) Achieve universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
(f) Promote delayed marriage for girls, not earlier than age 18 and preferably after 20 years of age.
(g) Achieve 80 per cent institutional deliveries and 100 percent deliveries by trained persons.
(h) Making family welfare a people centered programme.
(i) Preventing and controlling transmissible diseases.
Q10. Map Work (As per 2011 Census)
(A) Densely populated state of India
(B) Less populated state of India
(C) The state of highest density of population
(D) The state of lowest density of population
(E) The state of highest literacy rate
(F) The state of lowest literacy rate
(G) The state of highest sex ratio
(H) The state of lowest sex ratio
(A) Densely populated state of India - Uttar Pradesh
(B) Less populated state of India - Sikkim
(C) The state of highest density of population - Bihar
(D) The state of lowest density of population - Arunachal Pradesh
(E) The state of highest literacy rate - Kerala
(F) The state of lowest literacy rate - Bihar
(G) The state of highest sex ratio - Kerala
(H) The state of lowest sex ratio - Haryana
Q1. Define: (a) Manufacturing (b) Industries.
Ans: (a) Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw material to more valuable products is called "Manufacturing".
(b) Industry: Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.
Q2. What is Agglomeration Economies?
Ans: Many Industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centre's known as agglomeration economies.
Q3. Define classification of industries on the basis of Ownership.
Ans: Following is classification of industries on the basis of Ownership:
(a) Private Sector Industries: Owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. Bajaj Auto, Reliance, etc.
(b) Public Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the government. E.g. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. (BHEL), SAIL, etc.
(c) Joint Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. OIL (Oil India Ltd.), Maruti Udyog Limited., Gujarat State Fertilizers, Cochin Refineries, etc.
(d) Co-operative Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Mutually they get the resources and share the profit and losses. E.g. Sugar industry in Maharashtra, Coir industry in Kerala, etc.
Q4. Highlight the Problems faced by cotton textile industries in India.
Ans: Following are some of the problems faced by cotton textile industries in India:
(a) Unpredictable power supply.
(b) Obsolete machinery.
(c) Low output of labour.
(d) Stiff competition with the synthetic fiber.
Q5. Describe the factors responsible for the development of jute industry in the Hugli basin.
Ans: Given below are the factors responsible for the development of jute industry in the Hugli basin:
(a) Closeness of the jute producing areas.
(b) Inexpensive water transport.
(c) Good network of railways, roadways and waterways.
(d) Abundant water for processing raw jute.
(e) Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
(f) Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.
Q6. Mention the key points of Automobile Industry in India.
Ans: Some of the key points of Automobile Industries in India are as follows:
(a) Almost all types of vehicles are manufactured in India.
(b) After liberalization in 1991, many automobile manufacturers set up their base in India.
(c) With the launch of contemporary models, India became an attractive market for automobiles.
(d) At present, there are 15 manufacturers of cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of two and three-wheelers.
(e) Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Sanand, Pantnagar, etc. are the major centers of automobile industry.
Q7. Describe the characteristics and distribution of iron and steel industries in India.
Ans: Following are the characteristics and distribution of iron and steel industries in India:
(a) This is basic industry.
(b) These industries are the feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries.
(c) Due to this, production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country's development.
(d) India is 9th among the world crude steel producers and produces 32.8 million tons of steel.
(e) India is the largest producer of sponge iron. But per capita consumption of steel is only 32 kg per annum.
(f) At present, there are 10 primary integrated steel plants in India. Additionally, there are many mini steel plants in the country.
(g) SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited) is the major public sector company in this sector, while TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) is the major private sector company in this industry.
(h) Most of the iron and steel industries are in the Chotanagpur plateau region. This region has plenty of low cost iron ore, high grade raw materials, cheap labour and good connectivity through railways and roadways.
Q8. Explain different types of pollutions caused by industries.
Ans: Industries are responsible for majorly four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
(a) Air Pollution: High proportion of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide create air pollution. Suspended particulate matters also create problems. Smoke is emitted from chimneys of various factories. Some industry also pose the risk of leak of hazardous chemicals; the way it happened during the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Air pollution has adverse effect on human health, animals, plants, buildings, and the atmosphere as a whole.
(b) Water Pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents cause water pollution. Paper, pulp, chemical, textile, dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries, etc. are the main culprits of water pollution.
(c) Thermal Pollution: It occurs when hot water from factories or thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. This plays havoc with the aquatic life.
Waste from nuclear power plants contains highly radioactive materials and it needs to be properly stored. Any leakage of radioactive material can cause short term and long term damages to humans as well as to other life forms.
(d) Noise Pollution: Noise pollution can result in constant irritation, hypertension and hearing impairment. Factory equipments, generators, electric drills, etc. are the major sources of noise pollution.
Q9. What different steps can be taken to minimize the environmental degradation done by the industries?
Ans: Given below are some of the steps that can be taken to minimize the environmental degradation done by the industries:
(a) Chimneys should be fitted with electrostatic precipitators to prevent release of suspended particulate matters.
(b) Water should be reused and recycled in the industry. This will help in minimizing the use of freshwater.
(c) Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
(d) Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released in rivers and ponds.
Q10. On the map of India locate the following:
(A) Cotton Textile Industry: MUMBAI
(B) Cotton Textile Industry: AHMEDABAD
(C) Cotton Textile Industry: KANPUR
(D) Cotton Textile Industry: MADURAI
(E) Iron and Steel Plant: JAMSHEDPUR
(F) Iron and Steel Plant: BHILAI
(G) Iron and Steel Plant: VISHAKHAPATNAM
(H) Iron and Steel Plant: SALEM
(I) Software Technology Park: BHUBANESHWAR
(J) Software Technology Park: HYDERABAD
(K) Software Technology Park: BANGALURU
(L) Software Technology Park: THIRUVANANTHAPURAM
Q1. Define Virgin Vegetation.
Ans: The vegetation which has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time is called virgin vegetation. The virgin vegetation, which are purely Indian are known as endemic or indigenous species but those which have come from outside India are termed as exotic plants.
Q2. Define an ecosystem.
Ans: All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent on each other. The plants and animals, along with their physical environment make the ecosystem. Interrelation between plants and animals in the natural environment is called Ecosystem.
Q3. What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?
Ans: Factors responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India are:
(a) Relief: Land and soil
(b) Climate: Temperature, Humidity, Photoperiod and Precipitation.
Q4. What is a bio-reserve? Name the four biosphere reserves in India which have been included in the world network of Biosphere reserves.
Ans: A biosphere reserve is an area of land or water that is protected by law in order to support the conservation of ecosystems, as well as the sustainability of mankind's impact on the environment.
Four biosphere reserves in India which have been included in the world network of Biosphere reserves are:
(a) Sunderbans in West Bengal
(b) Nanda Devi in Uttaranchal,
(c) The Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu
(d) The Nilgiris (Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu).
Q5. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?
Ans: Species of some plants and animals are on the verge of extinction as their population has decreased considerably. Such species are known as "Endangered Species".
Following are the reasons behind species becoming endangered:
(a) Increase in population.
(b) Urbanization and Industrialization.
(c) Large scale deforestation.
(e) Hunting for pleasure and commercial purpose, etc.
Q6. Name different types of Vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.
Ans: There are five major types of vegetation in India: Tropical Rainforests, Tropical Deciduous Forests, Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs, Montane Forests and Mangrove Forests.
(a) The forests in the mountainous areas are called montane forest.
(b) Different types of vegetation are found at different altitudes in the mountains.
(i) The wet temperate type of forest is found between a height of 1000 and 2000 meter. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oak and chestnut abound in such forests.
(ii) Between the heights of 1500 and 3000 meters, Coniferous trees; like Pine, Deodar, Silver Fir, Cedar, etc. are found.
(iii) At the height of 3600 meters, alpine vegetation is found; such as Silver Fir, Junipers, Pines, Birches, etc. are found.
(iv) At the higher altitude Tundra vegetations are found; such as Mosses and Lichens.
(c) Kashmir Stag, Wild Sheep, Yak, Snow Leopard, Bear, Rare Red Panda, etc. are the common animals in these forests.
Q7. Distinguish between Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs Forest and Mangrove Forests.
Q8. Distinguish between Tropical Evergreen Forest and Deciduous Forests.
Q9. In India, what are the various steps taken to conserve forest and wildlife?
Ans: Following are few steps that have been taken to conserve forest and wildlife:
(a) National Forest Policy framed by the government should be implemented.
(b) National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Bioreserves, Botanical Gardens have been setup.
(c) Special Projects (E.g. Project Tiger, Project Elephant, etc.).
(d) Celebration of Van Mahotsav. Every National festival is followed by tree plantation ceremony.
(e) Controlling of deforestation and overgrazing. Large scale afforestation or planting of tress is undertaken.
(f) Social Awareness Programmes to be implemented.
(g) Wildlife Protection Act 1972.
Q10. On the outline map of India, label the following:
(A) Four Biosphere reserves in India, included in the world network of Biosphere reserves.
(B) Two National Parks each in Northern parts of the Country.
(C) Two National Parks each in Southern parts of the Country.
(D) Two National Parks each in Eastern parts of the Country.
(E) Two National Parks each in Western parts of the Country.
Q1. Name the controls affecting the climate of any place.
Ans: There are six major controls of the climate of any place. They are:
(a) Latitude (b) Altitude (c) Pressure and Wind System
(d) Distance from the Sea (e) Ocean Currents (f) Relief Features.
Q2. What are the elements of weather and climate?
Ans: There are the five major elements of weather and climate, i.e. Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, Humidity and Precipitation
Q3. What are Jet Streams?
Ans: Fast flowing air currents in a narrow zone in the upper atmosphere are known jet streams.
Q4. Define monsoons. What do you understand by "break" in monsoon?
Ans: The seasonal reversal in wind direction during a year is called monsoon. The word "Monsoon" has been derived from an Arabic word called "Mausim" which means "Season".
Monsoon tends to have 'breaks' in rainfall; which means that there are wet and dry spells in between. The monsoon rains take place only for a few days at a time and then come the rainless intervals.
Q5. Why the monsoon is considered a unifying bond?
Ans: Following are few of the reasons why the monsoon is considered as a unifying bond in India:
(a) The Indian landscape, its flora and fauna, etc. are highly influenced by the monsoon.
(b) The entire agricultural calendar in India is governed by the monsoon.
(c) Most of the festivals in India are related to agricultural cycle. These festivals may be known by different names in different parts of the country, but their celebration is decided by the monsoon.
(d) It is also said that the river valleys which carry the rainwater also unite as a single river valley unit.
Q6. Discuss the mechanism of monsoons.
Ans: Following are the factors responsible for the mechanism of monsoon:
(a) The Sun causes differential heating and cooling of land and water. This creates low pressure on the landmass of India and high pressure over the ocean surface.
(b) The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is normally positioned about 5°N of the equator. It shifts over the Ganga plains during summer. It is also known as the monsoon trough during the monsoon season.
(c) The high pressure area, east of Madagascar is approximately 20°S over the Indian Ocean. This area affects the Indian Monsoon.
(d) The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer. This results in strong vertical air currents and formation of low pressure over the plateau. This low pressure zone is about 9 km above the sea level.
(e) The westerly jet stream move to the north of the Himalayas, and the tropical easterly jet stream moves over the Indian Peninsula during summer.
(f) The periodic change in pressure conditions between Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean that is known as the Southern Oscillation or SO also affects the monsoon.
(g) The difference in pressure over Tahiti (18°S/149°W) in the Pacific Ocean and Darwin (12°30'S/131°E) lies in northern Australia predicts the intensity of the monsoons. If the pressure differences are negative, it means a below average and late monsoon.
Q7. Give an account of weather conditions and characteristics of the cold season.
Ans: Following are the features of the cold season:
(a) The winter season begins from mid-November and till February; in northern India. December and January are the coldest months.
(b) The temperature goes low in the northern plains, while moderate in Chennai.
(c) As the northeast trade winds blow from land to sea, most parts of the country experience a dry season.
(d) The weather is usually marked by clear sky, low temperatures and low humidity and weak variable winds.
(e) The inflow of the cyclonic disturbances from the west and the northwest is a characteristic feature of the cold weather over the northern plains.
(f) These low-pressure over the Mediterranean Sea and Western Asia move into India that causes winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains.
(g) The winter rainfall is in small amount but is very important for the rabi crop. This rainfall is locally known as mahawat.
(h) The peninsular region does not get a well-defined winter because of the moderating influence of the sea.
Q8. Write the characteristics of the retreating monsoon or the transition season.
Ans: Following are the characteristics of the retreating monsoon or the transition season:
(a) During October-November, the sun apparently moves towards the south. Thus, the monsoon trough over the northern plains becomes weaker and the south-west monsoon winds start withdrawing. The monsoon withdraws from the northern plains by the beginning of October.
(b) The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature. Day temperatures are high, nights are cool and pleasant.
(c) High temperature and humidity, makes the weather quite uncomfortable during the day. This is commonly known as "October Heat".
(d) The temperature begins to fall rapidly in northern India by the second half of October.
(e) The low-pressure conditions over northwestern India move to the Bay of Bengal by early November.
(f) This shift leads to cyclonic depressions over the Andaman Sea. These cyclones usually cross the eastern coasts of India and cause heavy and widespread rain. These cyclones may also arrive at the Coasts of Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh.
(g) These cyclones contribute to the bulk of the rainfall of the Coromandel Coast.
Q9. Describe the onset and withdrawal of the monsoons in India.
(a) Generally, the monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian peninsular by the first week of June. Subsequently, it divides into two branches, viz. the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch.
(b) The Arabian Sea branch reaches Mumbai about ten days later, i.e. around 10th of June. The Bay of Bengal rapidly advances and reaches Assam in the first week of June.
(c) The monsoon winds are then deflected by high mountains and move towards west over the Ganga plains. The Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon arrives over Surashtra-Kuchchh and central part of the country by mid-June.
(d) The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal branches of the monsoon merge over the northwestern part of the Ganga plains.
(e) Delhi usually receives monsoon showers from the Bay of Bengal branch by the end of June.
(f) Western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, and eastern Rajasthan experience monsoon by the first week of July. The monsoon reaches Himachal Pradesh and the rest of the country by mid-July.
Withdrawal: Withdrawal or the retreat of the monsoon is a more gradual process.
(a) The monsoon begins to withdraw from the northwestern states of India by early September.
(b) The monsoon withdraws completely from the northern part of the Indian peninsular by mid-October.
(c) The monsoon withdraws from the rest of the country by early December.
(d) The islands receive the very first monsoon showers from the first week of April to the first week of May; progressively from south to north. The withdrawal of monsoon in the islands takes place from the first week of December to the first week of January.
Q10. On an outline map of India, show the following:
(a) Areas receiving rainfall over 400 cms.
(b) Areas receiving less than 20 cms of rainfall.
(c) The direction of the south-west monsoon over India.
(d) The Wettest place of the World.
(e) City in the eastern coast having an average temperature between 24-25 degree Celsius in the winter season.