06 February, 2019

Class X: More Questions for Revision

CHAPTER 1 (RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT)

Answer the following questions: Total Marks - 50

Q1. What is a Fallow Land? 1
Q2. What is Sub Soil? 1
Q3. Define Marginal Land. 1
Q4. Which term is used to identify the old and new alluvial respectively? 1
Q5. How much percentage of forest area should be there in the country according to the National Forest Policy? 1
Q6. Which type of soil develops due to high temperature and evaporation? 1
Q7. What is Leaching? 1
Q8. What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in hilly areas? 3
Q9. When and why was the Rio-de-Janeiro Earth Summit held? 3
Q10. "Net Sown Area varies from place to place". Why? 3
Q11. Distinguish between potential resources and stock with the help of examples. 3
Q12. Write any three problems associated with the indiscriminate use of resources by the human beings. 3
Q13. Distinguish between resources on the basis of Exhaustibility of Resources. 3
Q14. Explain land use pattern in India and why the land under forest has not increased much since 1960-61. 5
Q15. How have technological and economic development led to more consumption of resources? 5
Q16. What are the steps involved in the complex process of resource planning? Why is resource planning important in the context of a country like India? 5
Q17. What does the term "Land Degradation" mean? Which human activities have contributed significantly in land degradation? Suggest measures to solve the problem of land degradation. 5
Q18. Define any five major characteristics of "Arid Soil". 5

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CHAPTER 3 (WATER RESOURCES)

Answer the following questions: Total Marks - 50

Q1. Which river is known as "River of Sorrow"? 1
Q2. In the eleventh century which was the largest artificial lake built? 1
Q3. Name the king (Sultan) who built the tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi for supplying water to Siri Fort area.1
Q4. What is the major source of freshwater in India? 1
Q5. On which river Koyna Dam is built? 1
Q6. What is the rank of India in the world in term of availability of water per person per annum? 1
Q7. Globally, how much amount of precipitation is received by India? 1
Q8. What are the objectives of rainwater harvesting? State any three. 3
Q9. What are the ill-effects of irrigation? How is it responsible for transforming social landscape? 3
Q10. Why is conservation and management of water resources important? Give any three reasons. 3
Q11. Mention three major sources if irrigation in India. Which source of irrigation is most popular in southern India and why? 3
Q12. Highlight any three key features of the Narmada Bachao Andolan. 3
Q13. State any three examples (other than roof top rainwater harvesting) of traditional water harvesting system prevalent in various parts of India. 3
Q14. Multipurpose river projects are referred as the "Temples of modern India". Elucidate. 5
Q15. What is water scarcity? Give any four reasons to specify why there is scarcity of water across the globe? 5
Q16. What are interstate water disputes? Why are such issues raised? Give any three examples of interstate water disputes. 5
Q17. In the recent years, multipurpose river dam projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny and opposition. Explain. 5
Q18. Usage of tankas is very common in Rajasthan. Mention some of the features of these 'tankas' built in the houses of Bikaner and Phalodi. 5

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CHAPTER 4 (AGRICULTURE)

Answer the following questions: Total Marks - 50

Q1. What is Bhoodan – Gramdan movement? 1
Q2. Name any two beverage crops produced in India. 1
Q3. Mention different names by which slash and burn type of farming is known in India along with the name of the states. 1
Q4. In the states like Assam, Odisha and West Bengal, three crops of paddy are grown, name the crops. 1
Q5. Name the major maize producing states in India. 1
Q6. Which type of crop is known as "Leguminous Crop"? 1
Q7. In the first five year plan the main focus was on what? 1
Q8. Mention the factors which have influenced the change in the methods of cultivation. 3
Q9. What are coarse grains? Describe their characteristics. 3
Q10. Describe the geographical conditions, and major sugarcane producing states of India. 3
Q11. Distinguish between Rabi and Kharif season. 3
Q12. Mention any three geographical conditions required for the growth of Wheat in India. 3
Q13. Distinguish between subsistence farming and commercial farming. 3
Q14. What is plantation agriculture? Write its four characteristics. 5
Q15. Name any two fiber crops produced in India. Describe any two geographical conditions required for the growth of each crop. 5
Q16. Explain the challenges faced by Indian agriculture. 5
Q17. Mention important technological and institutional reforms introduced in India after independence in the 1960s and 1970s. 5
Q18. What is Horticulture? Name the fruits grown in India. Mention the name of states also. 5

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CHAPTER 5 (MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES)

Answer the following questions: Total Marks - 50

Q1. In the recent years, use of which fuel for transport vehicles is gaining popularity? 1
Q2. Where was petroleum drilled first in India? 1
Q3. What is "Rat Hole Mining"? 1
Q4. Name the two leading copper producing states of India. 1
Q5. What are Veins and Lodes? 1
Q6. What is a "Mine"? 1
Q7. What are placer deposits? 1
Q8. "Solar energy has a bright future in India". Support the statement with three facts. 3
Q9. What are the uses of limestone? Mention the states which are the major producers of limestone? 3
Q10. How is mica one of the most indispensable minerals? Explain any three points. 3
Q11. What are the differences between hydro-electricity and thermal electricity? 3
Q12. Draw a flow chart to explain the classification of minerals. 3
Q13. "Energy saved is energy produced". Justify the statement by giving any three measures to conserve the energy resources. 3
Q14. What is an ore? Explain the distribution of iron ore in India. 5
Q15. Explain different modes where minerals occur. 5
Q16. Differentiate between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy. 5
Q17. Name the ore from which aluminium is extracted. State any four uses of aluminium. Name two states where its ore is found. 5
Q18. What is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India? What are its three major forms? Write the main features of each form. 5

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CHAPTER 6 (MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES)

Answer the following questions: Total Marks - 50

Q1. Which industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last few years? 1
Q2. When and where was the first successful cotton textile industry setup in India? 1
Q3. What is the objective of NMCC? 1
Q4. What is the full form of BPO? 1
Q5. What is a consumer industry? 1
Q6. When and where was the first jute mill set up in India? 1
Q7. Dyeing, Spinning, Garment Manufacture, Fiber Production, Weaving. Arrange the activities from the start till the end. 1
Q8. Why did the traditional cotton textile industry of India receive a setback during the colonial period? 3
Q9. Explain three phases by which treatment of industrial effluents can be done. 3
Q10. Enlist various factors upon which growth of modern industry depends. 3
Q11. What are software technology parks ? State any two points of significance of Information Technology industry in India ? 3
Q12. Distinguish between an integrated steel plant and a mini steel plants stating three points of distinction. 3
Q13. Mention any two factors that have contributed to a healthy growth of the automobile industry in India. Name two centers where this industry is located. 3
Q14. Why does the north-eastern part of the Peninsular Plateau region have the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries? 5
Q15. What is the importance of the manufacturing industries? 5
Q16. Name the different types of pollution caused by industries. Explain each with appropriate example. 5
Q17. Which factors are responsible for shifting of sugar mills to southern and western states? Mention the challenges faced by the industry. 5
Q18. Draw a flow chart to explain the classification of industries. 5

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CHAPTER 7 (LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY)

Answer the following questions: Total Marks - 50

Q1. Which state has the highest density of roads in India? 1
Q2. Name the oldest artificial port in India? 1
Q3. What are rural roads? 1
Q4. Name the six mail channels that have been introduced by the Indian Postal Department. 1
Q5. Which port in India is known as the tidal port? 1
Q6. In India, first train ran between which two stations, in which year and covered an area of how many kilometers? 1
Q7. Name the different types of roads classified on the basis of the type of material used. 1
Q8. Which is the cheapest means of transportation? Write its three advantages. 3
Q9. Distinguish between Personal Communication and Mass Communication. 3
Q10. Mention the names of three National Waterways in India. 3
Q11. What is the length of coastline of India? What is Paradwip famous for, and in which state is it situated? 3
Q12. Distinguish between National Highways and State Highways. 3
Q13. Define balance of trade. Distinguish between favourable balance of trade and unfavourable balance of trade. 3
Q14. What are Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways? Mention any two objects of this project. The North – South and East – West Corridors join which terminal cities? 5
Q15. Name the important networks of pipeline transportation in India. Highlight any three merits of pipeline transport in India. 5
Q16.How do physical and economic factors influence the distribution pattern of Indian railways network? Explain with suitable examples. 5
Q17.Describe the significance of air transport. Write its two merits and two demerits. 5
Q18.Explain any five reasons why a dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a pre-requisite for trade of today. 5

 

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18 December, 2018

Class X: Map Work for Practice

A. HISTORY:

Outline Political Map of India


Lesson-3 Nationalism in India – (1918 – 1930)
For locating and labeling / Identification.

1. Indian National Congress Sessions:
(a) Calcutta (Sep. 1920)
(b) Nagpur (Dec. 1920)
(c) Madras (1927)
(d) Lahore (1929)

2. Important Centres of Indian National Movement:
(Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement)
(a) Champaran (Bihar) - Movement of Indigo Planters
(b) Kheda (Gujarat) - Peasant Satyagrah
(c) Ahmedabad (Gujarat) - Cotton Mill Workers Satyagraha
(d) Amritsar (Punjab) - Jallianwala Bagh Incident
(e) Chauri Chaura (Uttar Pradesh) - Calling off the Non Cooperation Movement
(f) Dandi (Gujarat) - Civil Disobedience Movement

 

B.GEOGRAPHY
Outline Political Map of India

Chapter 1: Resources and Development
Identification only:

Major soil Types.

Chapter 3: Water Resources
Locating and Labeling:

Dams:
(a) Salal

(b) Bhakra Nangal

(c) Tehri

(d) Rana Pratap Sagar

(e) Sardar Sarovar

(f) Hirakud

(g) Nagarjuna Sagar

(h) Tungabhadra. (Along with rivers)

Chapter 4: Agriculture
Identification only

(a) Major areas of Rice and Wheat.
(b) Largest / Major producer states of Sugarcane; Tea; Coffee; Rubber; Cotton and Jute.

Chapter: 5 Mineral and Energy Resources. Minerals
(Identification only)

(a) Iron Ore Mines: Mayurbhanj, Durg, Bailadila, Bellary, Kudremukh
(b) Mica Mines: Ajmer, Beawar, Nellore, Gaya, Hazaribagh
(c) Coal Mines: Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Talcher, Korba, Singrauli, Singareni, Neyvali.
(d) Oil Fields: Digboi, Naharkatia, Mumbai, High Bassien Kalol, Ankaleshwar
(e) Bauxite Deposits: The Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills, The plateau region of Bilaspur- Katni and Orissa Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district.
(f) Mica Deposits: The Chota Nagpur plateau, Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand, Ajmer & Nellore mica belt

Power Plants:
(Locating and Labeling only)

(a) Thermal: Namrup, Talcher, Singrauli, Harduaganj, Korba, Uran, Ramagundam, Vijaywada & Tuticorin

(b) Nuclear: Narora, Rawat Bhata, Kakrapara, Tarapur, Kaiga & Kalpakkam

Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries
(Locating and Labeling Only)

(a) Cotton Textile Industries: Mumbai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Surat, Kanpur, Coimbatore & Madurai.
(b) Iron and Steel Plants: Burnpur, Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur, Raurkela, Bhilai, Vijaynagar, Bhadravati, Vishakhapatnam & Salem

(c) Software Technology Parks: Mohali, Noida, Jaipur, Gandhinagar, Indore, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata, Bhubaneshwar, Vishakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mysore, Chennai & Thiruvanantapuram

Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy

Identification Only:

Golden Quadrilateral, North-South Corridor, East-West Corridor.

(a) National Highways: NH-1, NH-2 & NH-7

Locating and Labeling:
(b) Major Ports: Kandla, Mumbai, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Marmagao, New Mangalore, Kochi, Tuticorin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Paradip, Haldia & Kolkata.

(c) International Airports: Amritsar (Raja Sansi), Delhi (Indira Gandhi International), Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji), Thiruvanantapuram (Nedimbacherry), Chennai (Meenam Bakkam), Kolkata (Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose), Hyderabad (Rajiv Gandhi)

 

Note: Items of Locating and Labeling may also be given for Identification.

 

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17 December, 2018

Class X: Chapter 7 (Lifelines of National Economy) Extra Questions

Q1. What are considered as the lifelines of national economy?
Q2. Name the classification of roads.
Q3. Name the different organizations responsible for the construction and upkeep of different types of roads located in India.
Q4. Name the classification of roads on the basis of the type of material used.
Q5. What is Road Density?
Q6. What are the major problems faced by Indian Roads?
Q7. Write a note on the first train of India.
Q8. Name the different rail gauge found in India.
Q9. In how many zones Indian railways have been divided?
Q10. What are the major problems faced by Indian Railways?
Q11. Name the three important networks of pipeline transportation in India.
Q12. Highlight any five key features of waterways.
Q13. How many waterways have been declared as the national waterways by the government of India? Name them.
Q14. There are how many major and minor sea ports in India?
Q15. Which was the first port developed soon after independence?
Q16. What is the total length of coastline in India?
Q17. Name the different sea ports of India used for exporting iron ore to different parts of the world.
Q18. When was the air transportation nationalized in India?
Q19. Name few of the airlines operating in India.
Q20. Highlight important airports in India.
Q21. Name the six mail channels that have been introduced recently for the quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities in India.
Q22. Highlight major means of Personal communication and mass communication in the country.
Q23. Mention key features of the Indian Postal Service.
Q24. Write a short note on All India Radio (Akashwani) and Doordarshan.
Q25. Describe the role of newspapers in India.
Q26. What is international trade?
Q27. Define: (a) Import (b) Export (c) Balance of Trade
Q28. Write a note on tourism in India.
Q29. Which industry in India has emerged in last fifteen years?
Q30. What are the two main components of international trade?

 

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29 November, 2018

Class X: Chapter 7 (Lifelines of National Economy) Questions & Answers

Q1. Define different "Gauge (in meters)" of railway tracks can be found in India.
Ans: In India generally we find three different gauges of railway tracks:
(a) Broad Gauge - 1.676 meters
(b) Meter Gauge - 1.000 meter
(c) Narrow Gauge - 0.762 meter & 0.610 meter

Q2. Describe about the first port which was developed soon after independence?
Ans: Kandla port was the first port which was developed soon after independence.
(a) Kandla port was developed to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the wake of loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after the partition.
(b) Kandla is a tidal port.
(c) It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrial belt stretching across the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Q3. Mention any three problems faced by Indian Railways.
Ans: Following are some of the problems faced by the Indian Railways:
(a) Many passengers travel without tickets.
(b) Thefts and damaging of railway property has not yet stopped completely.
(c) People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this causes heavy damage to the railway.

Q4. Highlight some of the key points of the India Postal Service.
Ans: Given below are some of the key points of the India Postal Service:
(a) The Indian postal network is the largest in the world.
(b) It handles parcels as well as personal written communications.
(c) Cards and envelopes are considered first-class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
(d) The second-class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport.
(e) To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently. They are called Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.

Q5. Highlight the merits of road transportation against any other means of transportation.
Ans: Following are the positives of road transport against the other means of transportation:
(a) Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
(b) Roads can pass through comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
(c) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
(d) Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
(e) It also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower.
(f) Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.

Q6. Describe the classification of roads according to their capacity.
Ans: Roads are classified in the following six classes according to their capacity:
(a) Golden Quadrilateral: The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane super highways. These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
(b) National Highways: National highways link extreme parts of the country. These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
(c) State Highways: Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as state highways. These roads are constructed and maintained by the state Public Works Department (PWD) in state and union territories.
(d) District Roads: These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.
(e) Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category. These roads received special momentum under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
(f) Border Roads: These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas. Constructions and maintenance of these roads is done by Border Roads Organization, a government of India undertaking.

Q7. Mention three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country.
Ans: The three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country are:
(a) From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
(b) (b) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and other places.
(c) (c) Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.

Q8. Describe the waterways that have been declared as the national waterways by the government of India.
Ans: Following are the waterways that have been declared as the national waterways by the government of India:
(a) The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km) - N.W. No. 1
(b) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km) – N.W. No. 2
(c) The west-coast canal in Kerala (Kottapurma - Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals) - 205 km – N.W. No. 3
(d) Specified stretches of the Godavari, Krishna Rivers alongwith Kakinada, Puducherry stretch of canals – 1078 km – N.W. No – 4
(e) Specified stretches of the river Brahmani along with Matai River, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and east coast canal – 588 km – N.W. No - 5
(f) There are some other inland waterways, like: Mandavi, Zuari and Cumberjua, Sunderbans, Barak, backawaters of Kerala and tidal stretches of some other rivers.

Q9. What is International Trade? What are the two major components of International Trade? What is balance of trade?
Ans: The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade. The market is the place where such exchanges take place. Trade between two countries is called international trade.

Import and export are the two main components of international trade.
(a) Export: Exports are the goods and services produced in one country and sold to another country.
(b) Import: Imports are foreign goods and services bought by a country.

Balance of Trade: The difference between export and import of a country.
When the value of exports is higher than value of imports then this is termed as favourable balance of trade.
On the other hand, when the value of imports is higher than value of exports, then this is termed as unfavourable balance of trade.

Q10. How tourism has helped in growth of Indian economy?
Ans:
(a) Tourism in India has grown largely over the last three decades.
(b) Foreign tourist's arrivals in the country witnessed an increase of 11.8 per cent during the year 2010 as against the year 2009, contributing Rs 64,889 crore of foreign exchange in 2010.
(c) 5.78 million foreign tourists visited India in 2010.
(d) More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
(e) Tourism also promotes national integration, provides support to local handicrafts and cultural recreations.
(f) It also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.
(g) Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, eco tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism.

Q11. On the map of India locate the following:

Major Sea Ports:
(A) Kandla
(B) Mumbai
(C) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(D) Marmagao
(E) New Mangalore
(F) Kochi
(G)Tuticorin
(H) Chennai
(I) Vishakhapatnam
(J) Paradwip
(K) Haldia
(L) Kolkata

International Airports:
(M) Amritsar (Raja Sansi)
(N) Delhi (Indira Gandhi International)
(O) Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji)
(P) Thiruvanantapuram (Nedimbacherry)
(Q) Chennai (Meenam Bakkam)
(R) Kolkata (Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose)
(S) Hyderabad (Rajiv Gandhi)

Ans: Locate and label the placed mentioned above by using the map given below:

 

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26 November, 2018

Class X: Chapter 7 (Lifelines of National Economy)

Objectives and Goals:
1. What is the lifeline to national economy?
2. Who are the traders?
3. World into Global Village.
4. Transportation, Communication and Trade, impact on national economy.
5. Different means of Transportation: Land, Water and Air.
6. Land: Roadways and Railways.
7. Roadways: Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways, National Highways, State Highways, District Highways, Other Roads and border roads.
8. Road Density.
9. Railways: Rail network, Rail gauge and length of routes in India, Development of railways
10. Pipelines.
11. Waterways.
12. Major Sea Ports
13. Airway
14. Major International Airports
15. Communication
16. International Trade
17. Tourism as a Trade

There are three types of economic activities. These are:
1. Primary Activities: Connected with extraction and production of natural resources like forestry, agriculture, mining, animal husbandry, etc.
2. Secondary Activities: Connected with processing and manufacturing of primary goods into finished goods. They get raw material from the Primary sector. For e.g. Iron ore into tools & machines, sugar cane into sugar, etc.
3. Tertiary Activities: Provides support to Primary and Secondary sectors through services, e.g. transportation, banking, tourism, etc.

Lifelines of National Economy:
• Transport plays an important role in the economy.
• Because of transport raw materials reach the factory and finished products reach to the consumer.
• The pace of development of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space.
• Therefore, efficient means of transport are pre-requisites for fast development.
• Apart from transport, the ease and mode of communications, like telephone and internet makes seamless flow of information possible.
• Today, India is well-linked with the rest of the world despite its vast size, diversity and linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
• Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers, radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have been contributing to its socio-economic progress in many ways.
• The trades from local to international levels have added to the vitality of its economy.
• It has enriched our life and added substantially to growing amenities and facilities for the comforts of life.

 

ROADWAYS:

• India has one of the largest road networks in the world, aggregating to about 2.3 million km at present.
• In India, roadways have preceded railways.
• They still have an edge over railways in view of the ease with which they can be built and maintained.
• The growing importance of road transport against the transport is rooted in the following reasons:
(a) Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
(b) Roads can pass through comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
(c) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
(d) Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
(e) It also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower.
(f) Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.

In India, roads are classified in the following six classes according to their capacity:

(a) Golden Quadrilateral:
• The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane super highways.
• The north-south corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and east-west corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat) are part of this project.
• The major objective of these super highways is to reduce the time and distance between the mega cities of India.
• These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).

(b) National Highways:
• National highways link extreme parts of the country.
• These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
• A number of major national highways run in north-south and east-west directions.

(c) State Highways:
• Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as state highways.
• These roads are constructed and maintained by the state Public Works Department (PWD) in state and union territories.

(d) District Roads:
• These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district.
• These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.

(e) Other Roads:
• Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category.
• These roads received special momentum under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
• Under this scheme special provisions are made so that every village in the country is linked to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.

(f) Border Roads:
• Apart from these, Border Roads Organization a government of India undertaking constructs and maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country.
• This organization was established in 1960 for the development of the roads of strategic importance in the northern and northeastern border areas.
• These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas.

 

Roads can also be classified on the basis of the type of material used:
(a) Metalled Road.
(b) Unmetalled Road.
(a) Metalled Road: These roads can be made of Cement, Concrete or even bitumen of coal, therefore, these are all weather roads.
(b) Unmetalled Road: These roads go out of use in the rainy season.

Road Density:
• The length of road per 100 sq. Km of area is known as density of roads.
• Distribution of road is not uniform in the country.
• Density of all roads varies from only 10.04 km in Jammu & Kashmir to 532.27 km in Uttar Pradesh (2007-08) with national average of 125.02 km (2007-08).
• In the year 1996-97, the national average density of road was 75 km.
• Road transportation in India faces a number of problems.
• Keeping in view the volume of traffic and passengers, the road network is inadequate.
• About half of the roads are unmetalled and this limits their usage during the rainy season.
• The national highways are inadequate too.
• Moreover, the roadways are highly congested in cities and most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.
• In the recent years, fast development of road network has taken place in different parts of India.

 

RAILWAYS

• Railways are the most important mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.
• Railways also make it possible to conduct different activities like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage, etc. along with transportation of goods over longer distances.
• Apart from an important means of transportation the Indian railways have been a great integrating force for more than 150 years.
• The first train ran between Mumbai to Thane in the year 1853 covering an area of 34 kms.
• Railways in India bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the development of the industry and agriculture.

Rail Network:
• The Indian railways have a network of 7,133 stations spread over a route length of 64,460 km.
• With a fleet of 9,213 locomotives,
• 53,220 passenger service vehicles,
• 6,493 other coach vehicles and 2,29,381 wagons as on March 2011.

 

DISTRIBUTION OF RAILWAYS

• The Indian railway is now reorganized into 16 zones.

Development of Railways:

1. The distribution pattern of the railway network in the country has been largely influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors.
2. The northern plains with their vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provided the most favourable condition for their growth. However, a large number of rivers requiring construction of bridges across their wide beds posed some obstacles.
3. In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels.
4. The Himalayan mountainous regions too are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities.
5. Likewise, it was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Jharkhand.
6. The contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed only through gaps or passes (Ghats).
7. In recent times, the development of the Konkan railway along the west coast has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods in this most important economic region of India. It has also faced a number of problems such as sinking of track in some stretches and landslides.
8. Today, the railways have become more important in our national economy than all other means of transport put together.
9. However, rail transport suffers from certain problems as well:
    (a) Many passengers travel without tickets.
    (b) Thefts and damaging of railway property has not yet stopped completely.
    (c) People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this causes heavy damage to the railway.

 

PIPELINES

• Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India.
• In the past, these pipelines were used to transport water to cities and industries.
• Now, these are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.
• Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
• The far inland locations of refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based fertilizer plants could be thought of only because of pipelines.
• Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.
• It rules out trans-shipment losses or delays.

There are three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country:
(a) From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
(b) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and other places.
(c) Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.

 

WATERWAYS

• Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
• They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
• It is a fuel-efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.
• India has inland navigation waterways of 14,500 km in length.
• Out of these only 5,685 km are navigable by mechanized boats.
• The following waterways have been declared as the national waterways by the government:
   (a) The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km) - N.W. No. 1
   (b) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km) – N.W. No. 2
   (c) The west-coast canal in Kerala (Kottapurma - Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals) - 205 km – N.W. No. 3
   (d) Specified stretches of the Godavari, Krishna rivers alongwith Kakinada, Puducherry stretch of canals – 1078 km – N.W. No – 4
   (e) Specified stretches of the river Brahmani along with Matai river, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and east coast canal – 588 km – N.W. No - 5
   (f) There are some other inland waterways, like: Mandavi, Zuari and Cumberjua, Sunderbans, Barak, backawaters of Kerala and tidal stretches of some other rivers.

• India's trade with foreign countries is carried from the ports located along the coasts. 95 percent of the country's trade volume (68% in terms of value) is moved by sea.

 

Major Sea Ports of India
1. Kolkata Port
2. Haldi Port
3. Paradwip Port
4. Vishakhapatnam Port
5. Chennai Port
6. Tuticorin Port
7. Cochin Port
8. New Mangalore Port
9. Marmagao Port
10. Jawaharlal Nehru Port
11. Kandla Port
12. Port Blair Port
13. Mumbai Port
14. Ennore Port

Major Sea Ports
• India has a long coastline of 7,516.6 km.
• India has 12 major and 187 medium and minor ports.
• These major ports handle 95 per cent of India's foreign trade.
• Kandla in Kuchchh was the first port developed soon after independence to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the wake of loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after the partition.
• Kandla is a tidal port.
• It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrial belt stretching across the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

• India Mumbai is the biggest port with a spacious natural and well-sheltered harbour.
• The Jawaharlal Nehru port was planned with a view to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub port for this region.
• Marmagao port (Goa) is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country. This port accounts for about fifty per cent of India's iron ore export. New Mangalore port, located in Karnataka caters to the export of iron ore concentrates from Kudremukh mines. Kochi is the extreme south-western port, located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural harbour.
• On the east coast, is the port of Tuticorin, in Tamil Nadu. This port has a natural harbour and rich hinterland. Thus, it has a flourishing trade handling of a large variety of cargoes to even our neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka, Maldives, etc. and the coastal regions of India.
• Chennai is one of the oldest artificial ports of the country. It is ranked next to Mumbai in terms of the volume of trade and cargo.
• Vishakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked and well-protected port. This port was, originally, conceived as an outlet for iron ore exports.
• Paradwip port located in Orissa, specializes in the export of iron ore.
• Kolkata is an inland riverine port. This port serves a very large and rich hinterland of Ganga- Brahmaputra basin. Being a tidal port, it requires constant dredge of Hoogly.
• Haldia port was developed as a subsidiary port, in order to relieve growing pressure on the Kolkata port.

 

AIRWAYS
• The air transport was nationalized in 1953.
• On the operational side, Indian airlines, alliance air (subsidiary of Indian airlines), private scheduled airlines and non- scheduled operators provide domestic air services.
• Air India provides international air services.
• Pawanhans helicopters ltd. Provides helicopter services to oil and natural gas commission in its off- shore operations, to inaccessible areas and difficult terrains like the north-eastern states and the interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal. Indian airlines operations also extend to the neighbouring countries of south and south-east asia and the middle east.
• It can cover very difficult terrains like high mountains, dreary deserts, dense forests and also long oceanic stretches with great ease.

SOME OF THE MAJOR AIRPORTS IN INDIA
• Delhi- Indira Gandhi International Airport
• Mumbai- Chattrapathi Shivaji International Airport
• Bengaluru- (Bangalore) International Airport
• Hyderabad- Rajiv Gandhi International Airport
• Chennai International Airport
• Kolkata- Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport
• Thiruvananthapuram – International Airport
• Amritsar - Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport

 

COMMUNICATION
• People all over the world have been using different means of communication.
• Personal communication and mass communication including television, radio, press, films, etc. are the major means of communication in the country.

Indian Postal Service:
• The Indian postal network is the largest in the world.
• It handles parcels as well as personal written communications.
• Cards and envelopes are considered first-class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
• The second-class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport.
• To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently. They are called Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.

 

Telephone:
• India has one of the largest telephone networks in Asia.
• In order to strengthen the flow of information from the grassroots to the higher level, the government has made special provision to extend twenty-four hours STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) facility to every village in the country.
• There is a uniform rate of STD facilities all over India. It has been made possible by integrating the development in space technology with communication technology.

Mobile Telephone:
• India is one of the fastest growing mobile network in the world.
• Mobile phones have changed the way Indians conducted business.
• Now even low income group people like vegetable vendors, plumbers and carpenters get better business because they are connected through mobile phones.

Mass Communication:
• Mass communication provides entertainment and creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies.
• It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films.
• All India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages for various categories of people, spread over different parts of the country.
• Doordarshan, the national television channel of India, is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world.
• It broadcasts a variety of programmes from entertainment, educational to sports, etc. for people of different age groups.

                  

Newspapers:
• India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals annually.
• They are of different types depending upon their periodicity.
• Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dialects.
• Largest number of newspapers published in the country are in Hindi, followed by English and Urdu.

Films:
• India is the largest producer of feature films in the world.
• It produces short films; video feature films and video short films.
• The central board of film certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.

 

INTERNATIONAL TRADE
• The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade.
• The market is the place where such exchanges take place.
• Trade between two countries is called international trade.
• It may take place through sea, air or land routes.
• Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity.
• It is, therefore, considered the economic barometer for a country.
• Resources are unevenly distributed throughout the world. Thus, no country can survive without international trade.
• Import and export are the two main components of international trade.
• Export: Exports are the goods and services produced in one country and sold to another country.
• Import: Imports are foreign goods and services bought by a country.
• Balance of Trade: The difference between export and import of a country.
• When the value of exports is higher than value of imports then this is termed as favourable balance of trade.
• On the other hand, when the value of imports is higher than value of exports, then this is termed as unfavourable balance of trade.

SHARE IN EXPORTS OF THE MAJOR INDIAN COMMODITIES IN THE YEAR 2010-11

 

SHARE IN IMPORTS OF THE MAJOR INDIAN COMMODITIES IN THE YEAR 2010-11

International Trade:
(a) In the year 2010-11, the Bulk imports as a group registered a growth accounting for 28.2% of total imports.
(b) This group includes:
      • Fertilizers – 3.4%
      • Cereals – 14.3%
      • Edible Oils – 17.4%
      • Newsprint – 40.3%
(c) International trade has seen a tremendous change in the last fifteen years.
(d) Exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and knowledge.
(e) India has emerged as a software giant at the international level and it is earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology.

 

TOURISM AS A TRADE:
(a) Tourism in India has grown largely over the last three decades.
(b) Foreign tourist's arrivals in the country witnessed an increase of 11.8 per cent during the year 2010 as against the year 2009, contributing Rs 64,889 crore of foreign exchange in 2010.
(c) 5.78 million foreign tourists visited India in 2010.
(d) More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
(e) Tourism also promotes national integration, provides support to local handicrafts and cultural recreations.
(f) It also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.
(g) Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, eco tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism.
(h) There is a vast potential for development of tourism in all parts of the country.
(i) Efforts are being made to promote different types of tourism for this upcoming industry.

 

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25 November, 2018

Class X: Chapter 6 (Manufacturing Industries) Extra Questions for Practice

Q1.  Define Manufacturing.
Q2.  Define Industry.
Q3.  Mention importance of manufacturing.
Q4.  What are the different physical and human factors responsible for the industrial location?
Q5.  What is "Agglomeration Economics"?
Q6.  Draw a flow chart to define classification of industries.
Q7.  Define classification of industries on the basis of capital investment.
Q8.  Give examples (two each) of classification of industries on the basis of ownership.
Q9.  Why Maharashtra and Gujarat emerged as the hub of cotton textile industries in India?
Q10. What are the different problems faced by cotton textile industries in India?
Q11. India exports cotton goods to which all countries?
Q12. In which location jute is majorly produced?
Q13. Which country is the largest producer of jute in the world?
Q14. When the National Jute Policy was formulated?
Q15. Major sugar industries are spread across which all states?
Q16. Name the major public sector and private sector iron and steel industries in India.
Q17. What are the different challenges for Sugar industry?
Q18. Why most of the iron and steel industries are in the Chota-Nagpur plateau region?
Q19. Which city is known as the electronic capital of India?
Q20. Name the major centers of automobile industry.
Q21. Name the major manufacturers of cars, commercial vehicles and two & three-wheelers in India.
Q22. Name the important centers of Information Technology and Electronics Industry in India.
Q23. What different Preventing measures can be taken to protect the environmental degradation done by the Industries in India?
Q24. Map Work:
(A) Cotton Textile Industries: Mumbai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Surat, Kanpur, Coimbatore and Madurai

(B) Iron and Steel Plants: Burnpur, Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur, Raurkela, Bhilai, Vijaynagar, Bhadravati, Vishakhapatnam and Salem

(C) Software Technology Parks: Mohali, Noida, Jaipur, Gandhinagar, Indore, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata, Bhubaneshwar, Vishakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mysore, Chennai and Thiruvanantapuram

 

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