27 October, 2018

Class X: Chapter 6 (Manufacturing Industries)

Objectives and Goals:

(a) Define the term Manufacturing and Industries.
(b) Three types of economic activities (i.e. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary).
(c) Importance of Manufacturing.
(d) Contribution of Industry to National Economy.
(e) Industrial Location (Factors effecting the location of an Industry).
(f) Industrial Market Linkage (The Industrial System).
(g) Classification of Industries (i.e. On the basis of Raw Materials, On the basis of Investment: Large Scale Industries, Small Scale Industries and On the basis of Ownership: Private Sector Industries, Public Sector Industries, Joint Sector Industries, Co-operative Sector Industries).
(h) Agro Based Industries (Textile Industry: Cotton & Jute, Sugar Industry)
(i) Mineral Based Industries (Iron & Steel Industry, Automobile Industry, Information Technology & Electronics Industry)
(j) Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation: Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Thermal Pollution, Noise Pollution).
(k) Control of Environmental Degradation.
(l) National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)

There are three types of economic activities. These are:
1. Primary Activities: Connected with extraction and production of natural resources like forestry, agriculture, mining, animal husbandry, etc.
2. Secondary Activities: Connected with processing and manufacturing. They get raw material from the Primary sector. When the primary product is processed into a secondary product, its utility and value is increased.
3. Tertiary Activities: Provides support to Primary and Secondary sectors through services, e.g. transportation, banking, tourism, etc.

 

MANUFACTURING: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw material to more valuable products is called "Manufacturing".

INDUSTRY: Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.

 

THE ECONOMIC STRENGTH OF A COUNTRY IS MEASURED BY THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES.

 

IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES:
(a) Industrial growth helps in modernising the agricultural activities by providing machinery, chemicals, irrigation facilities, insecticides, pesticides, etc..
(b) Industrial growth helps in reducing the unemployment and poverty.
(c) Industrial growth can earn foreign exchange by exporting the finished goods and thus, can expand its trade and commerce.
(d) Any country with high level of manufacturing activities becomes prosperous.

 

CONTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRY TO NATIONAL ECONOMY:
(a) The share of manufacturing sector in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has been stagnant at 17% over the last two decades.
(b) The total contribution of industry to the GDP is 27% out of which 10% comes from mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.
(c) The growth of the manufacturing sector had been 7% in the last decade. Since 2003, the growth rate has been 9 to 10% per annum. The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12%.
(d) The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set with the objectives of improving productivity through proper policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry.

 

INDUSTRIAL LOCATION
Factors effecting the location of an Industry:
(a) Physical Factors
(b) Human Factors
(c) Key to decision of industrial location is "LEAST COST".
(d) Government policies and specialized labours also influence the location of industry.

Agglomeration Economies: Many Industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centre's known as agglomeration economies. Gradually, a large industrial agglomeration takes place.

• Industrialization leads to Urbanization.

 

INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM

• An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs.

Input: Raw materials, labour, costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.

Process: All activities that convert the raw material into finished products.

Output: End/ Final/Finished product and the income earned from it.

 

INDUSTRY – MARKET LINKAGE

 

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES:

1. On the basis of Raw Materials:
These types of industries are classified depending on the type of raw materials they use.
(a) Agro Based Industries: Use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. E.g. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products, etc.
(b) Mineral Based Industries: Primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. E.g. Iron& Steel, Cement, Machine Tools, etc.

According to their main role:
1. Basic or Key Industries: These industries supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods, e.g. iron and steel, copper smelting, aluminium smelting, etc.
2. Consumer Industries: These industries produce goods which are directly used by consumers, e.g. sugar, paper, electronics, soap, etc.

2. On the basis of Investment:
These types of industries are classified depending on the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production.
(a) Large Scale Industries: In India, on an industry, if the capital invested is more than 1 crore, then it is called Large Scale Industry. e.g. Iron & Steel Industries, Automobile Industries, etc.
(b) Small Scale Industries: In India, on an industry, if the capital invested is less than 1 crore, then it is called Small Scale Industry. E.g. Silk weaving, Food processing industries, etc.

3. On the basis of Ownership:
(a) Private Sector Industries: Owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. e.g. Bajaj Auto, Reliance, etc.
(b) Public Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the government. e.g. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. (BHEL), SAIL, etc.
(c ) Joint Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. e.g. OIL (Oil India Ltd.), Maruti Udyog Limited., Gujarat State Fertilizers, Cochin Refineries, etc.
(d) Co-operative Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Mutually they get the resources and share the profit and losses. e.g. Sugar industry in Maharashtra, Coir industry in Kerala, etc.

4. On the basis of the Bulk and Weight of Raw Materials and Finished Goods:
(a) Heavy Industries: Use heavy and bulky raw material and produce heavy goods. E.g. Iron and Steel Industry.
(b) Light Industries: Use light raw material and produce light goods. E.g. Electrical Industries.

 

AGRO BASED INDUSTRIES
Following are some of the type of industries using agricultural raw material:
(a) Textile Industries: Cotton, Jute, Silk, Woollen, etc.
(b) Sugar and Edible Oil, etc.

 

TEXTILE INDUSTRY
(a) The textile industry contributes 14% to industrial production in India.
(b) 35 million persons are directly employed in the textiles industry in India.
(c) In terms of employment generation, this industry is the second largest after agriculture.
(d) It earns approximately 24.6% of the foreign exchange.
(e) The contribution of textiles industry to GDP is 4%.
(f) This is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain.

Cotton Textiles:
(a) Cotton textiles were traditionally produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques.
(b) Power-looms came into use after the 18th century. During the colonial period, the competition of mill-made cloth from England destroyed the Indian textiles industry.
(c) By November 2011 there were 1946 cotton and synthetic textile mills in India.
(d) Almost 80% of them are in the private sector. The rest are in the public sector and cooperative sector.
(e) Additionally, there are several thousand small factories with four to ten looms.

Location of Cotton Textile Industry:
(a) This industry was earlier concentrated in the cotton belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
(b) Availability of raw materials, port facilities, transport, labour, moist climate, etc. were in favour of these locations.
(c) The industry provides a source of livelihood to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
(d) This industry supports many other industries; like chemical and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.
(e) Spinning still continues to be centralized in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
(f) However, weaving is highly decentralized and there are many weaving centers in the country.
(g) India has world class production in spinning but weaving supplies low quality of fabrics as it cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.
(h) The handspun khadi provides large scale employment to weavers in their homes as cottage industry.
(i) India exports cotton yarn to Japan. Cotton goods are also exported to USA, UK, Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka and African countries.
(j) At around 34 million, India has the second largest installed capacity of spindles in the world; after China.
(k) India accounts for one fourth of the world trade in cotton yarn. However, India's share in garment trade in the world is only 4%.
(l) Our spinning mills are globally competitive and can use all the fibres we produce. But the weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.

Problems faced by cotton textile industries in India:
(a) Unpredictable power supply.
(b) Obsolete machinery.
(c) Low output of labour.
(d) Stiff competition with the synthetic fiber.

 

Jute Textiles:
(a) India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods in the world.
(b) It is the second largest exporter of jute; after Bangladesh.
(c) In 2010-11 there were 80 jute mills in India.
(d) Most of these mills are located in West Bengal; mainly along the bank of river Hooghly.
(e) The jute industry is in a narrow belt which is 98 km long and 3 km wide.

Location advantages of Hooghly basin:
(a) Proximity of the jute producing areas.
(b) Inexpensive water transport.
(c) Good rail and road network.
(d) Abundant water for processing raw jute.
(e) Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
(f) The jute industry directly supports 2.61 lakh workers.
(g) It also supports 40 lakh small and marginal farmers who are engaged in cultivation of jute and mesta.
(h) Jute industry is facing challenge from synthetic fiber and also from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand. But the internal demand has been rising because of government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
(i) The National Jute Policy was formulated in 2005 with an objective to increase productivity, improve quality and ensure good prices for the jute farmers.
(j) Due to growing global concern for environment friendly and biodegradable material; the future of jute looks bright.
(k) USA, Canada, Russia, UAE, UK and Australia are the main markets.

 

Sugar Industry:
(a) India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world.
(b) It is the largest producer of gur and khandsari.
(c) There are over 460 sugar mills in the country.
(d) They are spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.
(e) Sixty percent mills are in UP and Bihar.
(f) This industry is seasonal and hence is more suited to the cooperative sector.
(g) In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states; especially in Maharashtra.
(h) The cane produced in this region has higher sucrose content. The cooler climate of this region ensures a longer crushing season.

Challenges for Sugar industry:
(a) Seasonal nature of industry.
(b) Old and inefficient methods of production.
(c) Transport delay and the need to maximize the use of baggase are the major challenges for this industry.

 

MINERAL BASED INDUSTRIES

Iron & Steel Industry
(a) This is basic industry.
(b) These industries are the feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries.
(c) Due to this, production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country's development.
(d) India is 9th among the world crude steel producers and produces 32.8 million tons of steel.
(e) India is the largest producer of sponge iron. But per capita consumption of steel is only 32 kg per annum.
(f) At present, there are 10 primary integrated steel plants in India. Additionally, there are many mini steel plants in the country.
(g) SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited) is the major public sector company in this sector, while TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) is the major private sector company in this industry.
(h) Most of the iron and steel industries are in the Chotanagpur plateau region. This region has plenty of low cost iron ore, high grade raw materials, cheap labour and good connectivity through railways and roadways.

Reasons for underperformance of Iron and steel Industry in India:
(a) High cost and limited availability of coking coal.
(b) Low productivity of labour.
(c) Erratic energy supply.
(d) Poor infrastructure.

 

Automobile Industry
(a) Almost all types of vehicles are manufactured in India.
(b) After liberalization in 1991, many automobile manufacturers set up their base in India.
(c) With the launch of contemporary models, India became an attractive market for automobiles.
(d) At present, there are 15 manufacturers of cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of two and three-wheelers.
(e) Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Sanand, Pantnagar, etc. are the major centers of automobile industry.

 

Information Technology and Electronics Industry
(a) Bangalore is often termed as the electronic capital of India.
(b) Mumbai, Pune, Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore are the other important centers.
(c) There are 18 software technology parks in the country and they provide single window service and high data communication to software experts.
(d) This industry had generated a large number of employments.
(e) Upto 31 March 2005, over one million persons were employed in the IT industry. Because of fast growth of BPO (Business Process Outsourcing); this sector has been a major earner of foreign exchange.

 

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
• Industries are responsible for majorly four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
• The polluting industries also include thermal power plants.

(a) Air Pollution: High proportion of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide create air pollution. Suspended particulate matters also create problems. Smoke is emitted from chimneys of various factories. Some industry also pose the risk of leak of hazardous chemicals; the way it happened during the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Air pollution has adverse effect on human health, animals, plants, buildings, and the atmosphere as a whole.

(b) Water Pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents cause water pollution. Paper, pulp, chemical, textile, dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries, etc. are the main culprits of water pollution.

(c) Thermal Pollution: It occurs when hot water from factories or thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. This plays havoc with the aquatic life.
Waste from nuclear power plants contains highly radioactive materials and it needs to be properly stored. Any leakage of radioactive material can cause short term and long term damages to humans as well as to other life forms.

(d) Noise Pollution: Noise pollution can result in constant irritation, hypertension and hearing impairment. Factory equipments, generators, electric drills, etc. are the major sources of noise pollution.

 

Preventing Environmental Degradation by Industry:
(a) Industries are responsible for majorly four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
(b) Water should be reused and recycled in the industry.
(c) This will help in minimizing the use of freshwater.
(d) Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
(e) Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released in rivers and ponds.

 

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25 September, 2018

Class X: Chapter 5 (Minerals and Energy Resources) Question & Answers

Q1. What is a mineral?
Ans: A homogenous, naturally occurring substance with definable internal structure is called mineral.

Q2. What are the properties of minerals?
Ans: Following are the properties of minerals:
(a) Minerals are unevenly distributed throughout the world.
(b) Minerals take millions of year to form and are present in impure form.
(c) Minerals are non-renewable 'exhaustible' resources.

Q3. Mention the varieties of coal found in India.
Ans: Following are the different varieties of coal found in India:
(a) Anthracite: This is the highest quality hard coal.
(b) Bituminous: Coal which was formed because of increased temperature and was buried very deep is called bituminous coal. This is the most popular coal for commercial use. High grade bituminous coal is ideal for use in metallurgy.
(c) Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal. It is soft and has high moisture content. Neyveli in Tamil Nadu has the main reserves of lignite coal. This type of coal is used for electricity generation.

Q4. Write a note on Bauxite an ore to Aluminum.
Ans: (a) Bauxite is clay like substance, out of which aluminum is obtained.
(b) Amarkantak Plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni are the main areas of bauxite deposits.
(c) In 2009-10 Orissa was the largest producer of bauxite in India with 34.97%.
(d) Panchpatmali in Koraput district is the most important centre of bauxite deposit in Orissa.
(e) Aluminum is incredibly popular because it is Lightweight, Strong, Durable, Ductile, Malleable, etc.
(f) Aluminum is used in: Automobiles, Aircraft, Spacecraft, Packaging (Cans, Foil, frame, etc). Food and beverage containers, etc.

Q5. Write a note on Geo Thermal Energy.
Ans: Geo thermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth. Geothermal energy exists because; the Earth grows more and more hot with increasing depth. Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depths. Groundwater in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot. It is so hot that when it rises to the earth's surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity.
There are several hundred hot springs in India, which could be used to generate electricity. Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy. One is located in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga Valley, Ladakh.

Q6. Differentiate between Hydro Electricity and Thermal Electricity.
Ans:

Q7. Minerals are essential part of our life, it is important to know about the occurrence of minerals. Mention different modes where minerals occur?
Ans: Minerals are usually found in ores. Minerals generally occur in the following forms:
(a) In Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks: The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger occurrences are called lodes. They are usually formed when minerals in liquid/molten and gaseous forms are forced upwards through cavities towards the earth's surface. Examples: tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc.

(b) In Sedimentary Rocks: In these rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers. Coal, iron ore, gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt are the minerals found in sedimentary rocks.

(c) By Decomposition of Surface Rocks: Decomposition of surface rocks and removal of soluble constituents leaves a residual mass of weathered material which contains ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.

(d) As Alluvial Deposits: These minerals are found in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called placer deposits. They generally contain those minerals which are not corroded by water. Examples; gold, silver, tin, platinum, etc.

(e) In Ocean Water: Most of the minerals in ocean water are too widely diffused to be of economic importance. But common salt, magnesium and bromine are mainly derived from ocean waters.

Q8. Describe the distribution of iron ore in India.
Ans: Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. The major iron ore belts in India are:
(a) Orissa Jharkhand Belt: Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa have high grade hematite ore. Additionally, hematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.

(b) Durg Bastar Chandrapur Belt: This belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. The Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh have very high grade hematite ore. This hilly range has 14 deposits of super high grade hematite ore. Iron from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakapatnam port.

(c) Bellary Chitradurga Chikmaglur Tumkur Belt: This belt lies in Karnataka. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats are a 100 percent export unit. The ore from these mines is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.

(d) Maharashtra Goa Belt: This belt includes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. The ores in these mines are not of very high quality. They are exported through Marmagao port.

Q9. Differentiate between Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
Ans:

Q10. Draw a flow chart to explain the classification of minerals.
Ans:

 

 

Q11. On the map of India locate the following:
(A) Iron Ore Mines: Mayurbhanj
(B) Iron Ore Mines: Kudremukh
(C) Bauxite Deposits: The Amarkantak Plateau
(D) Bauxite Deposits: Orissa: Panchpatmali Deposits In Koraput
(E) Mica Mines: Ajmer
(F) Mica Mines: Gaya
(G) Coal Mines: Bokaro
(H) Coal Mines: Neyvali
(I) Oil Fields: Digboi
(J) Oil Fields: Mumbai High
(K) Thermal Power Plant: Ramagundam
(L) Thermal Power Plant: Tuticorin
(M) Nuclear Power Plant: Rawat Bhata
(N) Nuclear Power Plant: Kalpakkam

Ans:

 

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24 September, 2018

Class X: Chapter 5 (Minerals and Energy Resources)

Objectives and Goals:
(a) Mineral, Ore.
(b) Importance of minerals.
(c) Properties of minerals.
(d) Classification of minerals (i.e. Metallic, Non-Metallic and Mineral Fuels).
(e) Where are these minerals found?
(f) How the minerals are extracted by Mining, Drilling and Quarrying.
(g) Ferrous Minerals (Iron Ore and Manganese).
(h) Non-Ferrous Minerals (Copper and Bauxite).
(i) Non-Metallic Minerals (Mica and Limestone).
(j) Conservation of minerals.
(k) Hazards of Mining.
(l) Energy Resources (i.e. Conventional and Non-Conventional resources).
(m) Conventional resources of energy (i.e. Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas and Electricity: both
Hydro and Thermal).
(n) Non-Conventional resources (i.e. Nuclear Atomic Energy, Solar, Wind, Biogas, Tidal, and Geo Thermal).
(o) Conservation of Energy Resources).

• Earth crust is made up of different metals, which are extracted from minerals.
• Almost everything is made of minerals.

Q. What are minerals?
Ans: Homogenous naturally occurring substance with a definite internal structure is known as a mineral.

Minerals are formed in different types of geological environment, under varying conditions. They are created by natural process without any human interference. They can be identified on the basis of their physical properties such as colour, density, hardness and chemical property such as solubility.

Q. What is an ORE?
Ans: An ore is a rock deposit that contains enough mineral to make it economically feasible to extract and purify to derive a desired product material. Typical ores and their desired material extracted are: Magnetite - Iron, Bauxite - Aluminium, Limestone - Lime, Sandstone - Silica.

IMPORTANCE OF MINERALS:
(a) Minerals are used in industries. It is the backbone of industrial development.
(b) Minerals are used for making tools, implements, machines, etc.
(c) Minerals are used in the manufacturing of jewellery, coins, utensils, decorative items, etc.
(d) Minerals are used for construction work.
(e) Minerals are used for health purpose.
In short, Minerals are used in almost every form of life to lead a happy and comfortable life.

PROPERTIES OF MINERALS:
(a) Minerals are non-renewable 'exhaustible' resources.
(b) Minerals take millions of year to form and are present in impure form.
(c) Minerals are unevenly distributed throughout the world.

TYPES OF MINERALS
Over 2000 minerals have been identified and only a few have been abundantly found. On the basis of composition, minerals are classified as:

Q. How are minerals extracted?
Ans: Minerals can be extracted by Mining, Drilling and Quarrying.
(a) Mining: The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth's surface is called mining.
     (i) Open Cast Mining: Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer is known as "Open Cast Mining".
     (ii) Shaft Mining: Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depth, this is known as "Shaft Mining".
(b) Drilling: Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earth's surface. Deep wells are bored to take them out, this is called "Drilling".
(c) Quarrying: Minerals that lie near the earth's surface are simply dug out by the process known as "Quarrying".

 

MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS:

Q. Where are these minerals found?
Ans: Minerals are found in the following places:
1. In igneous and metamorphic rocks: The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger occurrences are called lodes. They are usually formed when minerals in liquid/molten and gaseous forms are forced upwards through cavities towards the earth's surface. Examples: tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc.

2. In sedimentary rocks: In these rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers. Coal, iron ore, gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt are the minerals found in sedimentary rocks.

3. By decomposition of surface rocks: Decomposition of surface rocks and removal of soluble constituents leaves a residual mass of weathered material which contains ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.

4. As alluvial deposits: These minerals are found in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called placer deposits. They generally contain those minerals which are not corroded by water. Examples; gold, silver, tin, platinum, etc.

5. In ocean water: Most of the minerals in ocean water are too widely diffused to be of economic importance. But common salt, magnesium and bromine are mainly derived from ocean waters.

 

DISTRIBUTION OF MINERALS IN INDIA

Ferrous Minerals:
• Ferrous minerals accounts for about three-fourth of the total value of production of the metallic minerals.
• Provide strong base for the development of the metallurgical industry.
• India exports good quantity of ferrous minerals.

IRON ORE:
• Iron ore is the basic mineral and is the backbone of industrial development.
• India is rich in good quality iron ores.
• Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron upto 70%. It has excellent magnetic properties because of which it becomes very valuable for the electrical industry.
• Hematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore; in terms of quantity usage. The iron content of hematite is 50-60%.

Major Iron Ore Belts in India:

1. Orissa Jharkhand Belt: Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa have high grade hematite ore. Additionally, hematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.

2. Durg Bastar Chandrapur Belt: This belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. The Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh have very high grade hematite ore. This hilly range has 14 deposits of super high grade hematite ore. Iron from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakapatnam port.

3. Bellary Chitradurga Chikmaglur Tumkur Belt: This belt lies in Karnataka. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats are a 100 percent export unit. The ore from these mines is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.

4. Maharashtra Goa Belt: This belt includes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. The ores in these mines are not of very high quality. They are exported through Marmagao port.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MANGANESE:
(a) Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy.
(b) Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture one tonne of steel.
(c) It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.
(d) Odisha is the largest producer of manganese ores in India. It accounted for one-third of the country's total production in 2000-01.

 

NON-FERROUS MINERALS:
(a) Availability of Non-Ferrous minerals in India is NOT of satisfactory level.
(b) E.g. Copper, Bauxite, Lead, Zinc, Gold, etc.
(c) These minerals play a vital role in a number of metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries.

 

COPPER:
(a) Copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.
(b) Copper is a good conductor of electricity.
(c) India doesn't have good reserves of copper.
(d) Leading producers of copper in India are:
     1. Khetri mines of Rajasthan.
     2. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh.
     3. Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.

 

BAUXITE:
(a) Bauxite is clay like substance, out of which aluminum is obtained.
(b) Aluminum is incredibly popular because it is Lightweight, Strong, Durable, Ductile, Malleable, etc.
(c) Amarkantak Plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni are the main areas of bauxite deposits.
(d) In 2009-10 Orissa was the largest producer of bauxite in India with 34.97%.
(e) Panchpatmali in Koraput district is the most important centre of bauxite deposit in Orissa.
(f) Aluminum is used in: Automobiles, Aircraft, Spacecraft, Packaging (Cans, Foil, frame). Food and beverage containers, etc.

 

NON-METALLIC MINERALS

MICA:
(a) Mica is a mineral which is made up of a series of plates or leaves.
(b) The mica sheets can be so thin that a thousand of them can be layered into a few centimetre thick mica sheet.
(c) Mica has excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage.
(d) Mica is widely used in electric and electronic industries.
(e) Mica deposits are found in the northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau.
(f) Koderma-Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of mica.
(g) Ajmer in Rajasthan and Nellore in Andhra Pradesh are the other important producers of mica.

 

ROCK MINERALS

LIME STONE:
(a) Lime stone is found in sedimentary rocks of most geological formations.
(b) It is found in association of rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates.
(c) It is the base raw material for the cement industry.
(d) It is also used for smelting of iron ore in the blast furnace.
(e) Major producers of Limestone in India are: Karnataka , Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan and Gujarat .

 

HAZARDS OF MINING
(a) Mining is a hzaradous industry; both for the workers and for the residents.
(b) The Miners have to work under tough conditions where no natural light is available.
(c) There is always a risk of collapse of mine roof, inundation with water and fire.
(d) The areas around mines face the problem of too much dust from the mines.
(e) Slurry from mines damages the roads and the farmland.
(f) Houses and clothes become dirty more often than in other areas.
(g) Miners are at great risk of getting afflicted with pulmonary disorders.
(h) Cases of respiratory tract diseases are very high in mining areas.

 

CONSERVATION OF MINERALS
(a) It takes millions of years for the formation of minerals.
(b) Compared to the present rate of consumption, the replenishment rate of minerals is very slow.
(c) Hence, mineral resources are finite and non-renewable.
(d) Due to this, it is important that we conserve the mineral resources.
(e) Minerals are a non-renewable resource.
(f) It takes thousands of years for the formation and concentration of minerals.
(g) The rate of formation is much smaller than the rate at which the humans consume these minerals. It is necessary to reduce wastage in the process of mining.
(h) Recycling of metals is another way in which the mineral resources can be conserved.

 

ENERGY RESOURCES

Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity. Energy resources can be classified as conventional and non- conventional sources.
Conventional Energy Resources: Firewood, Cattle Dung Cake, Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas and Electricity (both Hydel & Thermal)
Non-Conventional Energy Resources: Solar, Wind, Tidal, Geothermal, Biogas and Atomic Energy.
Firewood and cattle dung cake: As per estimates, more than 70% of energy need in rural households is met by firewood and cattle dung cake. A decreasing forest area is making it difficult to use firewood. Dung cake can be put to better use in the form of manure and hence its use should also be discouraged.

 

1. COAL:
• Coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India.
• India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy requirements.
• Depending on the degree of compression, depth and time of burial, there are different varieties of coal:
(a) Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal. It is soft and has high moisture content. Neyveli in Tamil Nadu has the main reserves of lignite coal. This type of   coal is used for electricity generation.
(b) Bituminous Coal: Coal which was formed because of increased temperature and was buried very deep is called bituminous coal. This is the most popular coal for commercial use. High grade bituminous coal is ideal for use in metallurgy.
(c) Anthracite Coal: This is the highest quality hard coal.
• In India, coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages.
(a) The Gondwana coal was formed over 200 million years ago. The tertiary deposits are about 55 million years old. The major sources of Gondwana coal are located in the Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhan). In this belt; Jharia, Raniganj and Bokaro are important coalfields. Coal deposits are also present in the Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys.
(b) Tertiary coal is found in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
• Coal is a bulky material, which loses weight on use as it is reduced to ash. Hence, heavy industries and thermal power stations are located on or near the coalfields.

 

2. PETROLEUM
• After coal, petroleum or mineral oil is the next major energy resource in India.
• Petroleum is a major source of fuel for various uses like: heating and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries.
• Petroleum refineries act as a "nodal industry" for synthetic textile, fertilizer and numerous chemical industries.
• Petroleum also provides raw materials for various manufacturing industries; like plastic, textiles, pharmaceuticals, etc.
• Most of the petroleum in India occurs in anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age.
• The oil bearing layer is a porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow.
• The intervening non-porous layers prevent the oil from rising or sinking.
• Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.
• Gas, being lighter usually occurs above the oil.
• Mumbai High produces about 63% of India's petroleum; Gujarat produces 18% and Assam 13%.
• Ankeleshwar is the most important oil field in Gujarat. Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India. Important oil fields of Assam are Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan.

 

3. NATURAL GAS
• Natural gas is an important clean energy resource found along with or without petroleum.
• Natural gas is considered an environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions and is, therefore, the fuel for the present century.
• It is used as fuel and also as an industrial raw material.
• Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna-Godavari Basin. Gulf of Cambay, Mumbai High and Andaman Nicobar islands are also important areas with large reserves of natural gas.
• The 1700 km long Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassein with the fertiliser, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India.
• Natural gas is mainly used by the fertiliser and power industries.
• Now-a-days, use of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is increasing as vehicle fuel in the country.

 

4. ELECTRICITY
• Electricity is generated mainly by two methods:
(a) Hydo Electricity: By running water which drives hydro turbines to generate Hydro Electricity.
(b) Thermal Electricity: By burning other fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to generate Thermal Electricity.

 

NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY

1. NUCLEAR ENERGY
• Nuclear energy is obtained by altering the structure of atoms.
• When the structure of an atom is altered, too much energy is released in the form of heat. This heat is utilized to generate electric power.
• Uranium and Thorium are used for generating atomic power.
• These minerals are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan.
• The Monazite sand of Kerala is also rich in Thorium.

2. SOLAR ENERGY
• Photovoltaic technology is used to convert solar energy into electricity.
• The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur near Bhuj.
• Solar energy holds great promises for the future.
• It can help in minimizing the dependence on firewood and animal dung cakes in rural areas.
• This will also help in conservation of fossil fuels.

3. WIND POWER
• India has great potential of wind power.
• The wind farm cluster in Tamil Nadu (from Nagarcoil to Madurai) is the largest cluster in India.
• Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep are also important centres of wind power production.
• Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country.

4. BIOGAS
• Biogas can be produced from shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste.
• Decomposition of organic matter yields gas, which has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, dung cake and charcoal.
• Biogas plants can be set up at municipal, cooperative and individual levels.
• The biogas plants using cattle dung are known as 'Gobar Gas Plants' in rural India.
• These plants provide twin benefits to the farmer:
   (a) In the form of energy
   (b) Improved quality of manure.
• It also prevents the loss of trees and manure due to burning of fuel wood and cow dung cakes.

5. TIDAL ENERGY
• Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity.
• Floodgate dams are built across inlets.
• The water flows into the inlet during high tide and gets trapped when the gate is closed. Once the tide recedes, the gates are opened so that water can flow back to the sea. The flow of water is used to run the turbine to generate electricity.
• In India the Gulf of Khambhat, the Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat on the western coast and the Gangetic delta in Sunderban regions of West Bengal provide ideal conditions for utilizing tidal energy.

6. GEO THERMAL ENERGY
• Geo thermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth.
• We know as we go deeper and deeper in the earth it become hotter and hotter.
• Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depths. Groundwater in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot. It is so hot that when it rises to the earth's surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity.
• Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy. They are; the Parvati Valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the Puga Valley in Ladakh.

 

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES
• Energy is a basic requirement for economic development.
• Every sector of the national economy: agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic needs energy. As a result, consumption of energy in all forms has been steadily rising all over the country.
• There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development.
• India is presently one of the least energy efficient countries in the world.
• We have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources.

Different ways of conserving power resources are:
(a) We can make use of energy efficient equipments.
(b) Looking for alternative sources of energy.
(c) Use of public transportation system instead of private vehicles.
(d) Switching off electricity when not required.
(e) Making people aware about the importance and conservation of power resources. Etc.

 

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20 September, 2018

Class X: More Questions for Practice

CHAPTER 1 - RESOURCE AND DEVELOPMENT

Very Short Answer Questions: 7 x 1 = 07
Q1. In which two states deforestation due to mining has caused land degradation?
Q2. In which type of energy is the state of Rajasthan rich in?
Q3. What is the mountain share in the total land area of India?
Q4. When was the concept of sustainable development discussed for the first time?
Q5. What is a bad land?
Q6. Which term is used to identify the old and new alluvial respectively?
Q7. What are Pastures?

Short Answer Questions: 6 x 3 = 18
Q8. What type of soil is found in the river deltas of eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
Q9. How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
Q10. How can we transform materials available in the environment?
Q11. What is Agenda 21 and write are its objectives?
Q12. What is soil erosion? Describe two types of soil erosion.
Q13. Distinguish between resources on the basis of Ownership.

Large Answer Questions: 5 x 5 = 25
Q14. Explain land use pattern in India and why the land under forest has not increased much since 1980-90.
Q15. Land is utilized for various purposes, explain.
Q16. Explain the factors responsible for the formation of soil.
Q17. Explain any five measures of soil conservation.
Q18. Using examples show the classification of resources with the help of a diagram.

 

CHAPTER 3 - WATER RESOURCE

Very Short Answer Questions: 7 x 1 = 07
Q1. What are Inundation channels?
Q2. What is Dam? Give example.
Q3. How much of the surface of the Earth is covered with water? What is the percentage of non-saline in it?
Q4. According to a Swedish expert when scarcity of water occurs?
Q5. How does afforestation in the catchment areas of rivers help?
Q6. What is rain water harvesting?
Q7. Name the region of India which suffers from water scarcity even it is very near to the highest rainfall region of the world?

Short Answer Questions: 6 x 3 = 18
Q8. Explain hoe water becomes a renewable resource?
Q9. Mention three major sources of irrigation in India? Which source of irrigation is most popular in southern states and why?
Q10. "Scarcity of water may be due to bad quality of water." comment.
Q11. Why interstate conflicts over water are becoming common in the modern world?
Q12. What were the different methods of traditional rain-water harvesting?
Q13. How does increasing number of industries exert pressure on existing fresh water resources?

Large Answer Questions: 5 x 5 = 25
Q14. Explain multipurpose river dam projects? Give an account of any four hydraulic structures of ancient India.
Q15. What are tankas? What is its significance?
Q16. What are the ill effects of irrigation? How is it responsible for transforming social landscape?
Q17. Mention any five advantages of multipurpose river dam projects.
Q18. "Need of the hour is to conserve and manage our water resources." Mention any three reasons. Suggest any two ways to conserve water.

 

CHAPTER 4 – AGRICULTURE

Very Short Answer Questions: 7 x 1 = 07
Q1. What is the other name of Operation Flood?
Q2. Name any two agro based industries.
Q3. India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of the world in.
Q4. What is the other name of package technology?
Q5. On what physical factors does shifting agriculture depend?
Q6. Which crop is used as both food and fodder?
Q7. Name some of the major oilseeds produced in India.

Short Answer Questions: 6 x 3 = 18
Q8. Mention any three characteristics of Primitive subsistence farming.
Q9. Highlight any six reasons why an Indian farmer does not want his son to become a farmer.
Q10. Describe the cropping patterns prevalent in India.
Q11. "Green Revolution has made India self-reliant in the production of food grain." List the characteristics of Green Revolution.
Q12. Mention the factors which have influenced the change in the methods of cultivation.
Q13. Describe the geographical conditions required for Rubber plantation.

Large Answer Questions: 5 x 5 = 25
Q14. Define agriculture? Describe any four features of Indian agriculture.
Q15. Describe the features of Tea and Coffee plantation in India.
Q16. Mention any five geographical conditions required for the growth of rice in India.
Q17.Mention important technological and institutional reforms introduced in India after independence in the 1980s and 1990s.
Q18. Describe any five features of the Bloodless Revolution.

 

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17 September, 2018

Class X: More Questions for Practice

CHAPTER 1 - RESOURCE AND DEVELOPMENT

Very Short Answer Questions: 7 x 1 = 07
Q1. What is a Fallow Land?
Q2. What is Sub Soil?
Q3. Define Marginal Land.
Q4. Which term is used to identify the old and new alluvial respectively?
Q5. How much percentage of forest area should be there in the country according to the National Forest Policy?
Q6. Which type of soil develops due to high temperature and evaporation?
Q7. What is Leaching?

Short Answer Questions: 6 x 3 = 18
Q8. What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in hilly areas?
Q9. When and why was the Rio-de-Janeiro Earth Summit held?
Q10. "Net Sown Area varies from place to place". Why?
Q11. Distinguish between potential resources and stock with the help of examples.
Q12. Write any three problems associated with the indiscriminate use of resources by the human beings.
Q13. Distinguish between resources on the basis of Exhaustibility of Resources.

Large Answer Questions: 5 x 5 = 25
Q14. Explain land use pattern in India and why the land under forest has not increased much since 1960-61.
Q15. How have technological and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
Q16. What are the steps involved in the complex process of resource planning? Why is resource planning important in the context of a country like India?
Q17. What does the term "Land Degradation" mean? Which human activities have contributed significantly in land degradation? Suggest measures to solve the problem of land degradation.
Q18. Define any five major characteristics of "Arid Soil".

 

CHAPTER 3 - WATER RESOURCE

Very Short Answer Questions: 7 x 1 = 07
Q1. Which river is known as "River of Sorrow"?
Q2. In the eleventh century which was the largest artificial lake built?
Q3. Name the king (Sultan) who built the tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi for supplying water to Siri Fort area.
Q4. What is the major source of freshwater in India?
Q5. On which river Koyna Dam is built?
Q6. What is the rank of India in the world in term of availability of water per person per annum?
Q7. Globally, how much amount of precipitation is received by India?

Short Answer Questions: 6 x 3 = 18
Q8. What are the objectives of rainwater harvesting? State any three.
Q9. What are the ill-effects of irrigation? How is it responsible for transforming social landscape?
Q10. Why is conservation and management of water resources important? Give any three reasons.
Q11. Mention three major sources if irrigation in India. Which source of irrigation is most popular in southern India and why?
Q12. Highlight any three key features of the Narmada Bachao Andolan.
Q13. State any three examples (other than roof top rainwater harvesting) of traditional water harvesting system prevalent in various parts of India.

Large Answer Questions: 5 x 5 = 25
Q14. Multipurpose river projects are referred as the "Temples of modern India". Elucidate.
Q15. What is water scarcity? Give any four reasons to specify why there is scarcity of water across the globe?
Q16. What are interstate water disputes? Why are such issues raised? Give any three examples of interstate water disputes.
Q17. In the recent years, multipurpose river dam projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny and opposition. Explain.
Q18. Usage of tankas is very common in Rajasthan. Mention some of the features of these 'tankas' built in the houses of Bikaner and Phalodi.

 

CHAPTER 4 – AGRICULTURE

Very Short Answer Questions: 7 x 1 = 07
Q1. What is Bhoodan – Gramdan movement?
Q2. Name any two beverage crops produced in India.
Q3. Mention different names by which slash and burn type of farming is known in India along with the name of the states.
Q4. In the states like Assam, Odisha and West Bengal, three crops of paddy are grown, name the crops.
Q5. Name the major maize producing states in India.
Q6. Which type of crop is known as "Leguminous Crop"?
Q7. In the first five year plan the main focus was on what?

Short Answer Questions: 6 x 3 = 18
Q8. Mention the factors which have influenced the change in the methods of cultivation.
Q9. What are coarse grains? Describe their characteristics.
Q10. Describe the geographical conditions, and major sugarcane producing states of India.
Q11. Distinguish between Rabi and Kharif season.
Q12. Mention any three geographical conditions required for the growth of Wheat in India.
Q13. Distinguish between subsistence farming and commercial farming.

Large Answer Questions: 5 x 5 = 25
Q14. What is plantation agriculture? Write its four characteristics.
Q15. Name any two fiber crops produced in India. Describe any two geographical conditions required for the growth of each crop.
Q16. Explain the challenges faced by Indian agriculture.
Q17.Mention important technological and institutional reforms introduced in India after independence in the 1960s and 1970s.
Q18. What is Horticulture? Name the fruits grown in India. Mention the name of states also.

 

MAP WORK (OUTLINE POLITICAL MAP OF INDIA)

Chapter 1: Resources and Development
Identification only: Major Soil Types.

Chapter 3: Water Resources
Dams Locating and Labeling:
(a) Salal
(b) Bhakra Nangal
(c) Tehri
(d) Rana Pratap Sagar
(e) Sardar Sarovar
(f) Hirakud
(g) Nagarjuna Sagar
(h) Tungabhadra. (Along with rivers)

Chapter 4: Agriculture
Identification only
(a) Major areas of Rice and Wheat.
(b) Largest / Major producer states of Sugarcane; Tea; Coffee; Rubber; Cotton and Jute.

 

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05 September, 2018

Class X: Map Work for Practice

A. HISTORY:

Outline Political Map of India


Lesson-3 Nationalism in India – (1918 – 1930)
For locating and labeling / Identification.

1. Indian National Congress Sessions:
(a) Calcutta (Sep. 1920)
(b) Nagpur (Dec. 1920)
(c) Madras (1927)
(d) Lahore (1929)

2. Important Centres of Indian National Movement:
(Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement)
(a) Champaran (Bihar) - Movement of Indigo Planters
(b) Kheda (Gujarat) - Peasant Satyagrah
(c) Ahmedabad (Gujarat) - Cotton Mill Workers Satyagraha
(d) Amritsar (Punjab) - Jallianwala Bagh Incident
(e) Chauri Chaura (Uttar Pradesh) - Calling off the Non Cooperation Movement
(f) Dandi (Gujarat) - Civil Disobedience Movement

 

B.GEOGRAPHY
Outline Political Map of India

Chapter 1: Resources and Development
Identification only:

Major soil Types.

Chapter 3: Water Resources
Locating and Labeling:

Dams:
(a) Salal

(b) Bhakra Nangal

(c) Tehri

(d) Rana Pratap Sagar

(e) Sardar Sarovar

(f) Hirakud

(g) Nagarjuna Sagar

(h) Tungabhadra. (Along with rivers)

Chapter 4: Agriculture
Identification only

(a) Major areas of Rice and Wheat.
(b) Largest / Major producer states of Sugarcane; Tea; Coffee; Rubber; Cotton and Jute.

Chapter: 5 Mineral and Energy Resources. Minerals
(Identification only)

(a) Iron Ore Mines: Mayurbhanj, Durg, Bailadila, Bellary, Kudremukh
(b) Mica Mines: Ajmer, Beawar, Nellore, Gaya, Hazaribagh
(c) Coal Mines: Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Talcher, Korba, Singrauli, Singareni, Neyvali.
(d) Oil Fields: Digboi, Naharkatia, Mumbai, High Bassien Kalol, Ankaleshwar
(e) Bauxite Deposits: The Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills, The plateau region of Bilaspur- Katni and Orissa Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district.
(f) Mica Deposits: The Chota Nagpur plateau, Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand, Ajmer & Nellore mica belt

Power Plants:
(Locating and Labeling only)

(a) Thermal: Namrup, Talcher, Singrauli, Harduaganj, Korba, Uran, Ramagundam, Vijaywada & Tuticorin

(b) Nuclear: Narora, Rawat Bhata, Kakrapara, Tarapur, Kaiga & Kalpakkam

Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries
(Locating and Labeling Only)

(a) Cotton Textile Industries: Mumbai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Surat, Kanpur, Coimbatore & Madurai.
(b) Iron and Steel Plants: Burnpur, Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur, Raurkela, Bhilai, Vijaynagar, Bhadravati, Vishakhapatnam & Salem

(c) Software Technology Parks: Mohali, Noida, Jaipur, Gandhinagar, Indore, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata, Bhubaneshwar, Vishakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mysore, Chennai & Thiruvanantapuram

Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy

Identification Only:

Golden Quadrilateral, North-South Corridor, East-West Corridor.

(a) National Highways: NH-1, NH-2 & NH-7

Locating and Labeling:
(b) Major Ports: Kandla, Mumbai, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Marmagao, New Mangalore, Kochi, Tuticorin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Paradip, Haldia & Kolkata.

(c) International Airports: Amritsar (Raja Sansi), Delhi (Indira Gandhi International), Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji), Thiruvanantapuram (Nedimbacherry), Chennai (Meenam Bakkam), Kolkata (Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose), Hyderabad (Rajiv Gandhi)

 

Note: Items of Locating and Labeling may also be given for Identification.

 

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