18 April, 2017

Class IX: Chapter 1 - India - Size and Location


                  The country lies wholly in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres



                              India is the seventh largest country in the world


Latitudes and Longitudes:


Latitude:  It is an angular distance, North or South from the equator, of a point on the earth's surface. The equator is 0and points can therefore be measured in degrees south and Northof this line.

Longitude:  It is an angular distance of a point measured on the earth's surface to the East or West of a central reference point. The reference point in this case is the plane created by a meridian going through Greenwich in England. It is 0o meridian.



Location & Size of India:

  • India lies in the Northern and Eastern hemisphere.
  • India is the seventh largest country in the world covering an area of 3.28 million square kilometers.
  • India covers 2.4 % of the total geographical area of the world.
  • The mainland stretches from Latitude 8o4' North to 37o6' North and from Longitude 68o7' East to 97o25' East.
  • The latitudinal & longitudinal extent of the country is almost same in degrees i.e. about 30o.
  • The southernmost point in the Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Islands) is the Indira Point (6o45' North), while Kanya-kumari, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland.
  • Tropic of Cancer crosses the country at 23o30' North dividing the country into almost two equal parts.
  • The country is of a vast size and measures about 3,214 kilometers from North to South and about 2,933 kilometers from West to East.
  • Coastline: 7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
  • The 82o30' East longitude is taken as Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India (Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh).
  • Indian Standard Time: GMT + 05:30.
  • Strait: A narrow stretch of sea linking two large seas, e.g. Palk Strait, English Channel, etc.
  • India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh are the countries forming the Indian sub-continent.


Q. Why 82o30' East longitude (Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India?

  • The longitudinal extent of India is 30o.
  • The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
  • It takes 4 minutes for the sun to move across 1 longitude. Thus, the eastern most point of India would be 2 hours ahead of the western most point (30 x 4 = 120 minutes), in accordance with the local time.
  • This difference in time might create confusion in air and rail timings and so many other things across the two states. To avoid this confusion a longitude passing through the midpoint of 68o 7' East (western most longitude) and 97o 25' East (eastern most longitude) is taken as the standard prime meridian of India (i.e. 82o30').
  • The time at the standard meridian 82o30' which passes through Mirzapur in UP is taken as the standard time of India, followed all over the country.



India and the World:

  • India is centrally located between the East and the West Asia.
  • India is located at the centre of the trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the European countries in the west and the countries of East Asia.
  • India has established close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast. Also, contact with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast.
  • India has longest coastline on the Indian Ocean.
  • India's contact with the world through land routes is much older than the sea routes.
  • Through these routes people around the world have come to know about India's culture and traditions.


India's Neighbours:

  • India has 29 states and 7 union territories.
  • In the northwest, India shares its boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  • In the north, India shares its boundaries with China, Nepal and Bhutan.
  • In the east, India shares its boundaries with Bangladesh and Myanmar.
  • In the south, India shares its boundaries with Maldives and Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by Palk Strait.







Ammar 14 April, 2014Very useful
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ritam banerjee31 May, 2016very comprehensive and effective too. need one rectification viz 29states at present and also an explanation that the international convsntion sags that longitudinall difference between two standard merian should be multiple of 7. 5d. egree so that time difference is always in half or full hrs(7. 5deg*4mjn/deg=30min). so though longitudinal mean is82°46'20" but its nearest multiple of 7. 5° is 82. 5° which is considered as standard meridian of India.
Subhash01 June, 2016Dear Ritam, the explanation that you have given is absolutely right. 82.5 degree (Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard meridian of India. 82.5 degree x 4 / 60 = 5.5 hrs ahead of GMT
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