Q1. Define: (a) Manufacturing (b) Industries.
Ans: (a) Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw material to more valuable products is called "Manufacturing".
(b) Industry: Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.
Q2. What is Agglomeration Economies?
Ans: Many Industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centre's known as agglomeration economies.
Q3. Define classification of industries on the basis of Ownership.
Ans: Following is classification of industries on the basis of Ownership:
(a) Private Sector Industries: Owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. Bajaj Auto, Reliance, etc.
(b) Public Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the government. E.g. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. (BHEL), SAIL, etc.
(c) Joint Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. OIL (Oil India Ltd.), Maruti Udyog Limited., Gujarat State Fertilizers, Cochin Refineries, etc.
(d) Co-operative Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Mutually they get the resources and share the profit and losses. E.g. Sugar industry in Maharashtra, Coir industry in Kerala, etc.
Q4. Highlight the Problems faced by cotton textile industries in India.
Ans: Following are some of the problems faced by cotton textile industries in India:
(a) Unpredictable power supply.
(b) Obsolete machinery.
(c) Low output of labour.
(d) Stiff competition with the synthetic fiber.
Q5. Describe the factors responsible for the development of jute industry in the Hugli basin.
Ans: Given below are the factors responsible for the development of jute industry in the Hugli basin:
(a) Closeness of the jute producing areas.
(b) Inexpensive water transport.
(c) Good network of railways, roadways and waterways.
(d) Abundant water for processing raw jute.
(e) Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
(f) Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.
Q6. Mention the key points of Automobile Industry in India.
Ans: Some of the key points of Automobile Industries in India are as follows:
(a) Almost all types of vehicles are manufactured in India.
(b) After liberalization in 1991, many automobile manufacturers set up their base in India.
(c) With the launch of contemporary models, India became an attractive market for automobiles.
(d) At present, there are 15 manufacturers of cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of two and three-wheelers.
(e) Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Sanand, Pantnagar, etc. are the major centers of automobile industry.
Q7. Describe the characteristics and distribution of iron and steel industries in India.
Ans: Following are the characteristics and distribution of iron and steel industries in India:
(a) This is basic industry.
(b) These industries are the feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries.
(c) Due to this, production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country's development.
(d) India is 9th among the world crude steel producers and produces 32.8 million tons of steel.
(e) India is the largest producer of sponge iron. But per capita consumption of steel is only 32 kg per annum.
(f) At present, there are 10 primary integrated steel plants in India. Additionally, there are many mini steel plants in the country.
(g) SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited) is the major public sector company in this sector, while TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) is the major private sector company in this industry.
(h) Most of the iron and steel industries are in the Chotanagpur plateau region. This region has plenty of low cost iron ore, high grade raw materials, cheap labour and good connectivity through railways and roadways.
Q8. Explain different types of pollutions caused by industries.
Ans: Industries are responsible for majorly four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
(a) Air Pollution: High proportion of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide create air pollution. Suspended particulate matters also create problems. Smoke is emitted from chimneys of various factories. Some industry also pose the risk of leak of hazardous chemicals; the way it happened during the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Air pollution has adverse effect on human health, animals, plants, buildings, and the atmosphere as a whole.
(b) Water Pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents cause water pollution. Paper, pulp, chemical, textile, dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries, etc. are the main culprits of water pollution.
(c) Thermal Pollution: It occurs when hot water from factories or thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. This plays havoc with the aquatic life.
Waste from nuclear power plants contains highly radioactive materials and it needs to be properly stored. Any leakage of radioactive material can cause short term and long term damages to humans as well as to other life forms.
(d) Noise Pollution: Noise pollution can result in constant irritation, hypertension and hearing impairment. Factory equipments, generators, electric drills, etc. are the major sources of noise pollution.
Q9. What different steps can be taken to minimize the environmental degradation done by the industries?
Ans: Given below are some of the steps that can be taken to minimize the environmental degradation done by the industries:
(a) Chimneys should be fitted with electrostatic precipitators to prevent release of suspended particulate matters.
(b) Water should be reused and recycled in the industry. This will help in minimizing the use of freshwater.
(c) Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
(d) Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released in rivers and ponds.
Q10. On the map of India locate the following:
(A) Cotton Textile Industry: MUMBAI
(B) Cotton Textile Industry: AHMEDABAD
(C) Cotton Textile Industry: KANPUR
(D) Cotton Textile Industry: MADURAI
(E) Iron and Steel Plant: JAMSHEDPUR
(F) Iron and Steel Plant: BHILAI
(G) Iron and Steel Plant: VISHAKHAPATNAM
(H) Iron and Steel Plant: SALEM
(I) Software Technology Park: BHUBANESHWAR
(J) Software Technology Park: HYDERABAD
(K) Software Technology Park: BANGALURU
(L) Software Technology Park: THIRUVANANTHAPURAM