09 July, 2018

Class X: Chapter 4 (Agriculture)

Objectives and Goals:
1. Define the term Agriculture.
2. Three types of economic activities (i.e. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary).
3. Types of farming (i.e. Primitive Subsistence Farming, Intensive Subsistence Farming and Commercial Farming).
4. Slash and Burn agricultural activity.
5. Cropping pattern (i.e. Rabi, Kharif and Zaid).
6. Major crops of India.
7. Food crops: Wheat, Rice, Millets, Maize, Pulses.
8. Food crops other than grains: Sugarcane, Oil Seeds, Coffee, Tea, etc.
9. Horticulture crops: Fruits and vegetables.
10. Non-food crops: Rubber, Fiber crops: Cotton and jute.
11. Technological and institutional reforms: Agricultural development.
12. Bhoodan – Gramdan & Land Reforms.

There are three types of economic activities. These are:
1. Primary Activities: Connected with extraction and production of natural resources like forestry, agriculture, mining, animal husbandry, etc.
2. Secondary Activities: Connected with processing and manufacturing of primary goods into finished goods. They get raw material from the Primary sector. For e.g. Iron ore into tools & machines, sugar cane into sugar, etc.
3. Tertiary Activities: Provides support to Primary and Secondary sectors through services, e.g. transportation, banking, tourism, etc.

AGRICULTURE:
The science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock is known as "Agriculture". It is also called farming.
• The word "Agriculture" has been derived from the Latin word "Ager or Agri" meaning "Soil" and "Culture" means "Cultivation".
• Agriculture is a primary activity.
• It includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock.
• Two-third of India's population is still dependent on agriculture.

TYPES OF FARMING:

1. Primitive Subsistence Agriculture:
(a) This type of farming is practiced on small patches of land.
(b) Primitive tools like: Hoe, Dao, Digging Sticks and family/community labour are used.
(c) Farming mainly depends on monsoon and natural fertility of soil.
(d) Crops are grown as per the suitability of the environmental condition.
(e) This type of farming is also called 'slash and burn' agriculture.
(f) A patch of land is cleared by slashing the trees and burning them. The ash is then mixed with the soil and the crops. When the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot.
(g) The final output of this farming technique is just enough for the family.
(h) Slash and burn agriculture is also known as Shifting cultivation.
(i) Slash and burn agriculture is known by different names in the world:
• Jhumming: Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland
• Pamlou: Manipur
• Dipa: Bastar (Chhattisgarh) and Andaman & Nicobar Islands
• Bewar or Dahiya: Madhya Pradesh
• Podu or Penda: Andhra Pradesh
• Pama Dabi or Koman or Bringa: Orissa
• Kumara: Western Ghats
• Valre or Waltre: South eastern Rajasthan
• Khi: Himalayan belt
• Kuruwa: Jharkhand
• Milpa: Mexico and Central America
• Conuco: Venezuela
• Roca: Brazil
• Masole: Central Africa
• Lading: Indonesia
• Ray: Vietnam

 

2. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture:
(a) This type of farming is practiced in thickly populated areas.
(b) In intensive subsistence agriculture the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour.
(c) There is huge population pressure on this type of farming.
(d) It is labour intensive.
(e) This involves high degree of use of biochemical inputs and irrigation.

Problems of Intensive Farming:
(a) Division of land through successive generation leads to plot size getting smaller and smaller.
(b) This makes it impossible to properly manage the farm inputs.
(c) There is huge pressure on the agricultural land.
(d) Multiple cropping is practiced.
(e) Land is not left barren so that the soil regain its firtility. Thus, the farmers use excess amount of chemical fertilizers to get the best output.
(f) Moreover, large-scale farming is not possible in that case.

2. COMMERCIAL FARMING
(a) In commercial farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market.
(b) The area cultivated is very large.
(c) It is capital intensive.
(d) Most of the work is done by machines.
(e) Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides are used.
(f) High yielding variety (HYV) seeds are used in order to get maximum output.
(g) In the states like Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Maharashtra commercial farming is done on a large scale.
(h) Rice is a commercial crop in Punjab and Haryana but in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.

Plantation:
(a) In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area.
(b) More capital and a large number of workers are required.
(c) Final output of the plantation is used in various industries. For e.g. tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc.
(d) Plantation requires a well developed network of transportation, communication, processing industries and a good market.

 

CROPPING PATTERN


India has three cropping seasons, i.e. Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.

(a) Rabi:
(i) Crops are sown in winters between October to December and harvested between April to June.
(ii) Some of the major crops of this season are: wheat, barley, peas, gram, and oilseeds.
(iii) Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are the important producers of rabi crops.

(b) Kharif:
(i) Crops are sown at the beginning of monsoon and harvested after rain i.e. between September to October.
(ii) Kharif crops are also known as summer crops.
(iii) Some of the major crops of this season are: rice, maize, jowar, bajra, jute.
(iv) Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are important rice growing states.
(v) In Assam, West Bengal and Orissa; three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are called Aus, Aman and Boro.

(c) Zaid:
(i) In between Rabi and Kharif crops zaid crops.
(ii) Some of the major crops of this season are: watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.
(iii) Sugarcane is planted in this season but takes almost a year to grow.

 

MAJOR CROPS OF INDIA:

FOOD CROPS:

1. Rice:
• Rice is the staple food crop of India.
• India is the second largest producer of rice, after China.
• Rice is a kharif crop.
• It requires high temperature (above 25°C), high humidity
• Annual rainfall above 100 cm.
• It grows best in alluvial clayey soil, which can retain water.
• In Assam, West Bengal and Orissa, three crops of paddy are grown in a year known as "Aus, Aman and Boro".
• Major producers: Northern plains, North Eastern States, Coastal and Deltaic Regions., etc.
• In the modern era, with the help of the technology and better irrigation facilities, rice is also grown in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and in parts of Rajasthan.

2. Wheat:
• Wheat is the main food crop in north and north-western parts of India.
• Wheat is a rabi crop grown in winter.
• It requires cool growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest.
• Annual rainfall of 50 to 75 cm, evenly distributed over the growing season.
• Two important wheat-growing zones in India are: The Ganga-Sutlej plains in the northwest and black soil region of Deccan.
• Major producers: Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh.

3. Millets:
• They are also known as coarse grains.
• It needs low rainfall and high to moderate temperature.
• Jowar, bajra and ragi are millet crops grown in India.
• All these crops have very high nutritional value.

(a) Jowar:
(i) Jowar grows in moist areas and hardly needs irrigation.
(ii) Major producers: Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

(b) Bajra:
(i) Bajra grows well on sandy soil and shallow black soil.
(ii) Major producers: Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.

(c) Ragi
(i) Ragi grows in dry regions on red, black, sandy loamy, and shallow black soils.
(ii) Major producers: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.

4. Maize:
• Maize is used as both food and fodder crop. It is also known as "Corn".
• Maize is basically a kharif crop. But in states like Bihar it is grown in rabi season.
• It requires a temperature range of 21°-27°C.
• Annual rainfall between 50 cm - 100 cm.
• It grows best in old alluvial soil,
• Major producers: Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

5. Pulses:
• India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world.
• Pulses are the great source of protein.
• Some of the pulses majorly grown in India are: Tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas, gram, etc.
• It needs less moisture and can even grow in dry conditions.
• Pulses are usually grown in rotation with other crops, so that the soil can regain its fertility.
• Major producers: Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

 

FOOD CROPS OTHER THAN GRAINS

1. Sugarcane:
• It is a tropical and subtropical crop.
• India is the second largest producer of sugarcane after Brazil.
• Sugarcane is a kharif crop.
• It requires a temperature range of 21°-27°C.
• Annual rainfall between 75 cm - 100 cm.
• Major producers: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.

2. Oil Seeds:
• Groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower are the main oilseeds grown in India.
• India was the second largest producer of groundnut in the world after China.
• India was the third largest producer of mustard seeds in the word after Canada and China.
• Oil seeds grown in India cover 12% of the total cropped area.
• Oil seeds are majorly used in cooking purpose.
• They are also used for the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.
• Groundnut accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country.
• Groundnut is a kharif crop.
• Gujarat was the largest producer of groundnut followed by Andhra Pradesh & Tamil Nadu.
• Linseed and mustard are rabi crops.
• Sesamum is a kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south.
• Castor is grown both as rabi and kharif crops.

3. Tea:
• Tea is a plantation crop.
• It is an important beverage crop.
• It grows well in tropical and subtropical climate.
• It grows well in deep and fertile well drained soil. The soil should be rich in humus and organic matter.
• Tea bushes require warm and moist frost free climate through the year.
• Frequent showers distributed throughout the year.
• Cheap and skilled labour is required in large number to pick the leaves.
• Tea is processed within the tea gardens to restore its freshness.
• India is the leading producer of tea in the world.
• Major producers: Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Meghalaya, Tripura, etc. Darjeeling is famous for the unique quality of tea production.

4. Coffee:
• Coffee is a plantation crop.
• It is an important beverage crop.
• Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop.
• India produced 3.2% of the total world coffee production.
• Indian coffee is well known for its good quality throughout the world.
• Initially, the Arabica variety of coffee was brought from Yemen and produced in India.
• The cultivation of coffee was initially introduced on the Baba Budan Hills.
• Major producers: Nilgiris in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

 

HORTICULTURE CROPS
India was the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world after China.

1. Fruits:
• India produces both tropical and temperate fruits.
• Mango: Maharashta, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.
• Oranges: Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya).
• Bananas: Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
• Lichi and Guava: Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
• Pineapples: Meghalaya.
• Grapes: Andhra Pradesh and Maharashta.
• Apples, Pears, Apricots and Walnuts: Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

2. Vegetables:
• India produces 13 % of the world's vegetables.
• India is an important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.

 

NON FOOD CROPS

1. Rubber:
• Rubber is a plantation crop.
• Rubber is a crop of equatorial region but it is also grown tropical and subtropical regions.
• It needs moist and humid climate.
• It requires a temperature above 25°C.
• Annual rainfall above 200 cm.
• Major producers: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman & Nicobar islands and also in the Garo hills of Meghalaya.
• India is the fourth largest rubber producer in the world.

 

FIBERCROPS
1. Cotton:
• India was the second largest producer of cotton after China.
• It grows best on the drier parts of black cotton soil and requires at least 6 to 8 months.
• Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
• Major producers: Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

 

2. Jute:
• Jute is also known as the 'Golden Fiber'.
• It grows well on well drained alluvial soil in the flood plain.
• It requires high temperature and humid climate.
• It requires heavy rainfall.
• Jute is used to make gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets, etc.
• Major producers: West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya.

 

TECHNOLOGICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS
• Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population.
• Land reform was the main focus of our First five Year Plan.
• Right to Inheritance.
• In 1960s and 1970s the Government of India introduced "Agricultural Reforms".
(a) The Green Revolution. To improve farm output. Use of new technology & HYV seeds was encouraged. Green revolution produced very good results; especially in Punjab & Haryana.
(b) The White Revolution (Operation Flood) was initiated to improve milk production in the country.
• In 1980s and 1990s comprehensive land development programmes were initiated, that included both "Institutional and Technical Reforms"
• Provision of crop insurance against natural calamities (for e.g. drought, floods, etc.), fire, disease, etc.
• Establishment of Grameen Banks, Cooperative Societies.
• Providing loan facilities at a lower rate of interest.
• Kissan Credit Cards (KCC).
• Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS).
• Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on radio and television. For e.g. Krishi Darshan, It commenced on 26 January 1967 and is the longest running television series in the world.
• The Government also introduced "Minimum Support Price, Remunerative and Procurement Prices for important crops" to check the exploitation of farmers by the speculators and middlemen.

Bhoodan – Gramdan & Land Reforms
• Land reform was the main focus of the First Five Year Plan.
• Vinoba Bhave started the Bhoodan Andolan to encourage big landlords to donate a part of their land to the landless farmers.
• Many people came out in support of Vinoba Bhave and donated land.
• Small plot size hampers proper farm management.
• To improve the condition, the government brought certain measures for land reform.
• In some states, land was redistributed so that all of the land owned by a farmer could come on a single plot.
• The reform was successful in some states (like Punjab and UP) but could not be implemented throughout the country, because of poor response by farmers.

 

 

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26 June, 2018

Class X: Chapter 3 (Water Resource) Question & Answers

Q1. What is Palar Pani"?
Ans: In the arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, rainwater is considered as the purest form of natural water, this rain water is commonly known as Palar Pani.

Q2. Explain how water becomes a renewable resource.
Ans: Three-fourth of the earth's surface is covered with water, but only a small proportion of it is freshwater that can be used. This freshwater is mainly obtained from surface run off and ground water that is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle or the water cycle. In this cycle majorly three processes that takes place, i.e. Evaporation, condensation and precipitation. The process of water cycle is never ending thus making water a renewable resource.

Q3. Mention some of the facts and figures about water.
Ans: Following are some of the facts and figures about water
(a) Out of total volume of water on earth; 97.5% exists in oceans and seas.
(b) About 2.5% of total water is available as freshwater.
(c) 70% of total freshwater is present as frozen ice in icebergs and glaciers.
(d) A little less than 30% of total freshwater is stored as groundwater.
(e) India receives about 4% of global precipitation.
(f) India ranks 133rd in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum.
(g) The total renewable water resources in India are estimated at 1,897 sq km per annum.
(h) It is predicted that large parts of India will join regions with absolute water scarcity; by 2025.

Q4. Explain the following:
(a) Bamboo Drip Irrigation System
(b) Guls & Kuls
(c) Khadins & Johads
Ans:
(a) Bamboo Drip Irrigation System: Bamboo drip irrigation system is a 200 year old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipe. Bamboo drip irrigation system is practiced in Meghalaya.

(b) Guls & Kuls: In Western Himalayas people build diversion channels like 'Guls' or 'Kuls' for the agricultural purpose.

(c) Khadins & Johads: In the arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to sand and moisten the soil, these water storage structures are known as Khadins in Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) and Johads in other parts of Rajasthan.

Q5. What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?
Ans: Scarcity of water means shortage of water or in other words if the demand of water is much more than the supply of water; it leads to Scarcity of water. Some of the causes for water scarcity are:
(a) Overpopulation.
(b) Urbanization.
(c) Industrialization.
(d) Increase in agricultural production.
(e) Over-exploitation and mismanagement of water.
(f) Water Pollution.
(g) Variation in the seasonal and annual precipitation.

Q6. What are the main purposes of constructing multipurpose river dam projects?
Ans: Following are some of the main purposes of multipurpose river dam projects:
(a) Generating Hydroelectricity.
(b) Flood Control.
(c) Development of Pisciculture.
(d) Water for agricultural use: Irrigation.
(e) Water for domestic usage.
(f) Water for Industrial usage.
(g) Soil conservation.
(h) Development of tourism.

Q7. What is the need for water conservation? Suggest some of the measures to conserve water resources.
Ans: Water is one of the most important natural resource; following are some of the reasons why water conservation is must:
(a) Water resource is limited.
(b) Water is unevenly distributed.
(c) Population is growing rapidly, so is the demand of water.
(d) Agriculture depends on water.
(e) Water plays a very vital role in the industrial sector.

Some of the measures to be taken for the conservation of water:
(a) Educating the people to avoid the over usage and wastage of water.
(b) Rain water harvesting.
(c) Constructing more water storage reservoirs.
(d) Linking of rivers, so that the water can be transferred from one to another.
(e) Interstate water disputes must be resolved.
(f) Government should take serious steps to check water mafia's.

Q8.Usage of tankas is very common in the state of Rajasthan. Mention some of the features of these 'tankas' built in the houses of Bikaner and Phalodi.
Ans:
(a) The tankas could be as large as a big room; household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 meters deep, 4.27 meters long and 2.44 meters wide.
(b) The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard.
(c) They were connected to the roofs of the houses through pipes.
(d) Rain water from the rooftops travel down the pipes and finally is stored in these underground tankas.
(e) The first spell of rain is usually not collected as this cleans the roofs and the pipes. The rainwater from the subsequent showers is then collected in the tankas.
(f) The collected water is then used whenever there is water shortage.

Q9. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects.
Ans:

Q10. On the map of India locate dam's alongwith the rivers.
(A) Salal
(B) Bhakra Nangal
(C) Tehri
(D) Rana Pratap Sagar
(E) Sardar Sarovar
(F) Hirakud
(G) Nagarjuna Sagar
(H) Tungabhadra.

Ans: Refer the map given in the book and locate.

 

 

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26 June, 2018

Class X: Chapter 3 (Water Resources)

Objectives and Goals:
1. Define Water as a Resource.
2. Water: Some facts and figures.
3. What is Water Scarcity?
4. Water Resource Management and Conservation.
5. Multipurpose river dam projects.
6. Advantages and disadvantages of Multipurpose River dam projects.
7. Narmada Bachao Andolan.
8. Irrigation leads to change in cropping pattern.
9. Rain water harvesting.
10. Bamboo drip irrigation system.

 

Water - Some Facts and Figures:
1. Out of total volume of water on earth; 96.5% exists in oceans and seas.
2. About 2.5% of total water is available as freshwater.
3. 70% of total freshwater is present as frozen ice in icebergs and glaciers.
4. A little less than 30% of total freshwater is stored as groundwater.
5. India receives about 4% of global precipitation.
6. India ranks 133rd in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum.
7. The total renewable water resources in India are estimated at 1,897 sq km per annum.
8. It is predicted that large parts of India will join regions with absolute water scarcity; by 2025.

 

Water Scarcity:
Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region.
1. Overexploitation of water, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups are the main causes of water scarcity.
2. Large population needs ever more water.
3. Large scale farming needs lot of water for irrigation.
4. 4. Rapid Urbanization and Industrialization.
5. Demand has been increasing but the process of natural recharge of groundwater has suffered because of several reasons.
(a) Large scale deforestation has disturbed the natural recharge of groundwater at many places.
(b) Construction of concrete buildings, factories and roads has also made the ground less impervious to rainwater. This has almost totally stopped the percolation of Rainwater to recharge groundwater.
6. Excess use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides has contaminated groundwater at many places. The contamination is at such a high level that water has become unfit for human consumption.
7. Sewage and effluents are being discharged into rivers and ponds; without being treated. This has turned most of the rivers into filthy drains.

 

MULTI-PURPOSE RIVER PROJECTS

Water Resource Management:
• India had a long tradition of building various structures to manage water resources. Irrigation systems were built as early as during the Mauryan Empire.
• At present, many multipurpose dam projects have been built in India.
• These dams serve many purposes. For e.g.:
   (a) They prevent flood by checking the flow of water.
   (b) The water from the dams is used through a system of canals to irrigate far flung areas.
   (c) Dams are also used for electricity generation.
   (d) Drinking water is also supplied from the dams.
• But dams have caused a lot of people being displaced from their ancestral lands.
• Additionally, a vast area of land gets submerged in the catchment area of dam.

• This results in large scale environmental consequences.
• Due to these reasons, many groups have begun protesting against building of large dams. "Narmada Bachao Andolan", "Tehri Dam Andolan", etc. are examples of such movements.
• Irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to water intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like salinisation of the soil. At the same time, it has transformed the social landscape i.e. increasing the social gap between the richer landowners and the landless poor.

 

Rainwater Harvesting:
• Most of the rainwater just flows off without seeping down the ground.
• This can be prevented by using rainwater harvesting.
• Rainwater can be collected for future use or can be channelized to recharge groundwater.
• Rooftop rainwater harvesting is ideal to be applied at small scale.
• Many infrastructure projects; like Metro rail and flyovers have also started making provisions for rainwater harvesting.

 

Some of the methods used for Rainwater Harvesting:

(a) In hill and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like the 'Guls' or 'Kuls' of the Western Himalayas for agriculture.
(b) In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the 'khadins' in Jaisalmer and 'Johads' in other parts of Rajasthan.
(c) Rooftop rainwater harvesting was commonly practiced to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan. Roof top rain water harvesting is the most common practice in Shillong,
(e) In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed barrage channels to irrigate their fields.
(f) Bamboo drip irrigation system is a 200 year old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipe. Bamboo drip irrigation system is practiced in Meghalaya.

 

Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting:

(a) In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water.
(b) The tanks could be as large as a big room; one household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 metres deep, 4.27 metres long and 2.44 metres wide.
(c) The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard. They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground 'tankas'.
(d) The first spell of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs and the pipes.
(e) The rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected.
(f) The rainwater can be stored in the tankas till the next rainfall making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up, particularly in the summers.
(g) Rainwater, or Palar Pani, as commonly referred to in these parts, is considered the purest form of natural water.
(h) Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the 'tanka' to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.

 

Important facts of Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting:

(a) In western Rajasthan, sadly the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is on the decline as plenty of water is available due to the perennial Rajasthan Canal, though some houses still maintain the tankas since they do not like the taste of tap water.
(b) In Gendathur, remote backward villages in Mysore, Karnataka, villagers have installed, in their household's rooftop, rainwater harvesting system to meet their water needs. Nearly 200 households have installed this system and the village has earned the rare distinction of being rich in rainwater. Gendathur receives an annual precipitation of 1,000 mm, and with 80 per cent of collection efficiency and of about 10 fillings, every house can collect and use about 50,000 litres of water annually. From the 20 houses, the net amount of rainwater harvested annually amounts to
1,00,000 litres.
(c) Tamil Nadu is the first state in India which has made roof top rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state. There are legal provisions to punish the defaulters.
(d) Roof top rain water harvesting is the most common practice in Shillong, Meghalaya. It is interesting because Cherapunjee and Mawsynram situated at a distance of 55 km. from Shillong receive the highest rainfall in the world, yet the state capital Shillong faces acute shortage of water. Nearly every household in the city has a roof top rain water harvesting structure. Nearly 15-25 per cent of the total water requirement of the household comes from roof top water harvesting.

 

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25 June, 2018

Class X: Chapter 1 (Resource and Development) Extra Questions For Practice

Q1. Define Resources.

Q2. Define resources classified on the basis of Exhaustibility.

Q3. Define National and International resources.

Q4. Define Stock and Reserve.

Q5. Define Sustainable Development.

Q6. Write a short note on Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992.

Q7. What is Agenda 21.

Q8. What is resource planning?

Q9. What are the three main points of the resource planning in India?

Q10. "Land is one of the most important natural resources". Justify the statement.

Q11. India comprises of many types of land forms, explain.

Q12. Write a short note on land utilization in India.

Q13. According to National Forest Policy (1952), what percentage of forest cover is essential to maintain ecological balance?

Q14. Write the various reasons for the degradation of land.

Q15. What different measures can be taken to control land degradation?

Q16. Highlight few points indicating Land Use Pattern in India:

Q17. "In India, different states have different reasons for the degradation of land" Justify the statement.

Q18. What different measures can be taken to control land degradation?

Q19. Define Soil.

Q20. Draw a diagram to show the soil profile.

Q21. What are the different factors responsible for the formation of Soil?

Q22. Name the major types of soils found in India.

Q23. Write a short note of Alluvial Soil.

Q24. What is Soil erosion?

Q25. What are the different factors responsible for the soil erosion?

Q26. Mention some of the methods used for conservation of soil.

 

 

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29 March, 2018

Class X: Chapter 1 (Resources and Development) Question & Answers

Q1. What are resources? What are their two main types?
Ans: Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as "Resource".
Resources are majorly classifies into two main types:
(a) Natural Resources: These are the free gifts of nature. For e.g. Air, Water, Soil, Sunlight, Minerals, Flora & Fauna, etc.
(b) Man Made Resources: Resources created by human beings are called Man-Made Resources. Buildings, Roads, Machines, etc

Q2. Define resources classified on the basis of Ownership of Resources.
Ans: On the basis of ownership resources are classifies into four types:
(a) Individual Resource: Resources which are owned by an individual. E.g. plot, car, house, etc.
(b) Community Resource: Resources which belongs to a community of people. E.g. parks, community halls, picnic spots, etc.
(c) National Resource: Resources which belongs to a nation. These resources are found within the political boundaries and territorial waters (i.e. ocean water upto 12 nautical miles (22.2 kms) from the coast of a country. E.g. rivers, forests, minerals, etc.
The country has legal powers to acquire private property to facilitate public.
(d) International Resource: Resources which are found beyond the territorial boundaries of a country. These resources are managed by the international institutes. No single country can use these resources without the permission of the international authorities. E.g. Minerals, fisheries, etc.

Q3. Define resources classified on the basis of Development of Resources.
Ans: On the basis of development resources are classifies into four types:
(a) Actual or Developed Resource: Resources whose existence has been proved and whose quality, quantity and location has been determined for utilization with the available technology.
(b) Potential Resource: Resources which are found in a region but have not been utilized, might be because of the lack of technology. They can be used in future. E.g. Solar and Wind are potential resource. Rajasthan and Gujarat have great potential for the development of these two resources.
(c) Reserves: Resources which can be put into use with the help of the existing technology but their use has not been started. They can be used in future. E.g. more rivers can be used for generating electricity.
(d) Stocks: Reserves which have the potential to satisfy the human needs but we don't have the technology to access it.

Q4. Write few points highlighting Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992.
Ans: Following are few points highlighting Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992:
(a) In June 1992, more than 100 heads of states met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first International Earth Summit.
(b) The Summit was organized for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development.
(c) The assembled leaders signed the Declaration on Global Climatic Change and Biological Diversity.
(d) The Rio Convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st century.

Q5. What are the five major factors responsible for the formation of Soil?
Ans: Following are the five major factors responsible for the formation of Soil:
(a) Relief: Altitude and slope determines the accumulation of soil.
(b) Parent Rock: It determines, colour, texture, chemical properties, mineral contents, etc.
(c) Climate: Rainfall and temperature influence rate of humus and weathering.
(d) Time: It determines thickness of soil profile.
(e) Vegetation & Other Forms of Life: Microorganisms & vegetation affect the rate of humus formation.

Q6. What do you mean by resource planning? What are its different stages?
Ans: Resource planning is the judicious use of resources. Following are the three different stages for the resource planning:
(a) Identification of resources across the country.
(b) Proper planning structure with appropriate technology, skill and institutions.
(c) Matching the resource development plans with overall development plans.

Q7. Name the different types of soils found in India. Give three main features of alluvial soil.
Ans: Soils are classified on the basis of colour, texture, fertility, mineral content, etc. Broadly, soil is classified into six types: Alluvial Soil, Black Soil, Red & Yellow Soil, Laterite Soil, Arid Soil and Forest Soil.
Alluvial soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast. Three main features of alluvial soil are:
(a) Alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay and is the most fertile soil.
(b) Alluvial soil has adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which is ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat, etc.
(c) According to their age alluvial soil can be classified into two: Old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar).

Q8. Mention atleast five steps that can be taken to control soil erosion.
Ans: Following steps can be taken to control soil erosion:
(a) Mulching: Bare ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw. It helps to retail soil moisture.
(b) Contour Ploughing: Ploughing along contours can decrease the flow of water down the slopes.
(c) Terrace Farming: Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terrace. Terrace farming restricts erosion.
(d) Shelter Belts: Planting lines of trees to create shelter which will break the force of the wind.
(e) Strip Cropping: Strips of grass are grown between the crops. This breaks the force of wind.
(f) Rock Dam: Rocks are piled to slow the speed of wind.
(g) Afforestation, Crop Rotation, Control over Deforestation and Overgrazing, etc.

Q9. Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
Ans: India has total 3.28 million square kilometer. According to the land used data records are available only for about 93% of land of total geographical area. Of the total about 46% of land is used as net sown area, 22% of is forest cover, 5% cultivable land, 8% fallow land, 4% is covered by pastures and 1% is covered by tree crops. The pattern of net sown area varies from state to state. As per National Forest Policy (1952), the forest should be 33% of total geographical area, which is essential to maintain ecological balance but in India the forest cover is only 22%.
Large scale of development, industrialization and urbanization as well as agricultural expansion has widely reduced the forest cover in various parts of the country. Though afforestation and other government policies have lead to a marginal increase in the forest cover area in the country.

Q10. How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
Ans: Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development. Technical and economic development always leads to more consumption of all types of resources (i.e. natural and man-made) because of the following reasons:
(a) Technological progress makes available the knowledge to bring resources under use.
(b) With economic progress, more industries will be setup. With growth in industrialization will lead to increasing demand for all the types of resources (i.e. land, labour, capital, etc.).
(c) With technological and economic development income level of the people will increase due to which demands will increase, which will lead to more services and more consumption of resources.

 

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29 March, 2018

Class X: Chapter 1 (Resources and Development)

Objectives and Goals:

1. Define Resources.
2. Interdependent relationship between Nature, Technology and Institution.
3. Classification of Resources.
4. Resources classified on the basis of Origin – Biotic & Abiotic.
5. Resources classified on the basis of Exhaustibility – Renewable & Non-Renewable.
6. Resources classified on the basis of Ownership – Individual, Community, National & International.
7. Resources classified on the basis of Status of Development – Potential, Developed, Stock & Reserve.
8. Development of Resources.
9. Sustainable Development.
10. Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992 and Agenda 21.
11. Resource Planning in India.
12. Conservation of Resources.
13. Land Resource, Land Utilization and Land use pattern in India.
14. Land Degradation and Conservation Measures.
15. Soil as a Resource.
16. Classification of Soil (i.e. Alluvial Soil, Black Soil, Red & Yellow Soil, Laterite Soil, Arid Soil, Forest Soil).
17. Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation.

 

Interdependent relationship between Nature, Technology and Institution.

 

 

 

Resource: Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as "Resource".

Classification of Resources:

 

1. On the basis of Origin of Resources: (a) Biotic  (b) Abiotic
(a) Biotic Resource: All living things are known as Biotic Resources. These resources are obtained from the Biosphere and they have life, such as – Human Beings, Flora, Fauna, fisheries, etc.
(b) Abiotic Resource: All non-living things are known as Abiotic Resources, such as Wind, Water, Air, Rocks, Metals, etc.

2. On the basis of Exhaustibility of Resources: (a) Renewable  (b) Non-Renewable
(a) Renewable Resource: Resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical process are known as Renewable or Replenishable Resource. E.g. Solar & Wind energy, Water, etc.
Renewable resources are further classified into continuous or flow.
Many resources are replenishable which means these resources are recycled within the environment by natural process and their quantities remain constant. E.g. Oxygen Cycle and Water Cycle take place rapidly, whereas e.g. like Rock Cycle is very slow.
(b) Non-Renewable Resource: Fossil Fuels like, coal, petroleum, natural gas are the best examples of non-renewable resource. These resources are limited in supply and it takes millions of years in their formation.
Metals like Gold, Silver, Copper and Iron are recyclable.

3. On the basis of Ownership of Resources: (a) Individual  (b) Community  (c) National  (d) International

(a) Individual Resource: Resources which are owned by an individual. E.g. plot, car, house, etc.

(b) Community Resource: Resources which belongs to a community of people. E.g. parks, community halls, picnic spots, etc.

(c) National Resource: Resources which belongs to a nation. These resources are found within the political boundaries and territorial waters (i.e ocean water upto 12 nautical miles (22.2 kms) from the coast of a country. E.g. rivers, forests, minerals, etc.
The country has legal powers to acquire private property to facilitate public.

(d) International Resource: Resources which are found beyond the territorial boundaries of a country. These resources are managed by the international institutes. No single country can use these resources without the permission of the international authorities. E.g. Minerals, fisheries, etc.

4. On the basis of Distribution of Resources: (a) Ubiquitous (b) Localised

(a) Ubiquitous Resource: Resources which are found everywhere are called ubiquitous resource. E.g. air, land, water, etc.

(b) Localised Resource: Resources which are found only in certain places are localised resources, like coal, petrol, iron, etc.

5. On the basis of Stage of Development of Resources: (a) Actual or Developed Resource (b) Potential Resource
(c) Reserves (d) Stock

(a) Actual or Developed Resource: Resources whose existence has been proved and whose quality, quantity and location has been determined for utilization with the available technology.

(b) Potential Resource: Resources which are found in a region but have not been utilized, might be because of the lack of technology. They can be used in future. E.g. Solar and Wind are potential resource. Rajasthan and Gujarat have great potential for the development of these two resources.
(c) Reserves: Resources which can be put into use with the help of the existing technology but their use has not been started. They can be used in future. E.g. more rivers can be used for generating electricity.

(d) Stocks: Reserves which have the potential to satisfy the human needs but we don't have the technology to access it.

Development of Resources:
Resources are the free gifts of nature and are very important for human beings. Some of the problems faced are:
• Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.
• Accumulation of resources in only few hands leaves others unsatisfied.
• Unsystematic use of resources is creating many problems around the world, such as global warming, ecological crisis, disturbance in ozone layer, etc.

Sustainable Development:
Development which should takes place without damaging the environment and compromising with the needs of the future generations is called sustainable development.

Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992:
• In June 1992, more than 100 heads of states met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first International Earth Summit.
• The Summit was organized for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development.
• The assembled leaders signed the Declaration on Global Climatic Change and Biological Diversity.
• The Rio Convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st century.

Agenda 21:
• It aims at achieving global sustainable development.
• It is an agenda to combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.
• One major objective of the Agenda 21 is that every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.

Resource Planning:
• Resource planning is the judicious use of resources.
• In India, resources are unevenly distributed and thus resource planning becomes very essential.
• In India, many states are rich in mineral and deficient in other resources, such as Jharkhand is rich in minerals, but there is problem of drinking water and other facilities, Arunachal Pradesh has plenty of water but lack of other development because of lack of resources.
• These types of discriminations can be reduced or completely eradicated with proper planning of judicious use of resources.

Resource Planning in India:
• In order to get the maximum output, a good resources planning is must keeping in mind the technology, skills and institutions.
• Since independence "Five Year Plans" have played a vital role in planning and development of the resources.

Following are the main points of Resource planning.
(a) Identification of resources across the country.
(b) Proper planning structure with appropriate technology, skill and institutions.
(c) Matching the resource development plans with overall development plans.

Conservation of Resources:
• Irrational consumption and over-utilization of resources have lead to socio-economic and environmental problems.
• Judicious use and conservation of resources is must. Gandhiji told "There is enough for everybody's need and not for any body's greed." He thought that exploitative nature of modern technology is the root cause for depletion at global level. He believed in the production by masses and not in the mass production.

Land Resources:
• Land is one of the most important natural resources.
• Land supports our life system with the basic necessities of life (i.e. food, cloth and shelter). Thus, proper planning is must for the proper utilization of land as a resource.
• Land is not even everywhere, India comprises of many types of land forms (i.e mountains, plateau, plains and islands).

Plain: About 43% of land area in India is in the form of plains. Plains provide facilities for agriculture, building of industries and houses, etc.
Mountains: About 30% of land area in India is in the form of mountain. Mountain supports the perennial flow of rivers, which carry fertile soils, facilitate irrigation and provide drinking water.
Plateau: About 27% of land in India is in the form of plateau which provides many types of minerals, fossil fuels and forest.

Land Utilization:
Land Resources are used for following purposes:
1. Forests
2. Land not available for cultivation:
(a) Barren and waste land.
(b) Lands used for buildings, roads, factories, etc. (i.e. for non-agriculture purpose).
3. Other Uncultivated Land (excluding fallow land):
(a) Permanent pastures and grazing land.
(b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area).
(c) Cultruable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).
4. Fallow Lands:
(a) Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year).
(b) Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).
5. Net Sown Area: Area which is sown at least once in a year is called net sown area.
6. Gross Cropped Area: Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.

Land Use Pattern in India:
• Pattern of use of land depends upon physical and human factors both.
• Climate, topography, type of soil, etc. are considered as physical factors.
• While population, technology, skill, population density, tradition, capability, etc. are considered as human factors.
• India has total 3.28 million square kilometer land used data. But only 93% of land of total geographical area is available. This is because land used data has not been collected for the north eastern states except Assam and the land occupied by Pakistan and China has not been surveyed because of many unavoidable reasons.
• The land under permanent pasture is decreasing; this will create the problem for grazing.
• The total net sown area (NSA) is not more than 54% including land other than fallow land.
• Land other than fallow land is either of poor quality or too costly to cultivate, these lands are cultivated only once or twice in two or three consecutive years.
• The pattern of net sown area varies widely from state to state. Where net sown area is 80% in state like Punjab, it is only 10% in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman and Nicobar Island. Such difference is creating lot of discrimination.
• According to National Forest Policy (1952), the forest should be 33% of total geographical area, which is essential to maintain ecological balance. But the forest area in India is far less than desired measures. This is because of illegal deforestation and development which cannot be overlooked, such as construction of roads and building, etc.
• On the other hand, a large population which is dwelling at the edge of forest depends upon the forest and its produce, resulting in the reduction of forest area.
• Moreover, continuous use of land over a long period without taking measures to conserve and manage, degrade them. This has led to serious problem to environment.

Land Degradation & Conservation
• Land is limited but the demand is increasing everyday.
• The change in land use pattern shows the changes in the society.
• Land Degradation: It is the decline in the productive capacity of land for some time or permanently.
• Most of our basic needs (i.e. food, clothing & shelter) is obtained from land.
• But in past few decades the quality of land is degrading fiercely because of human activity.
• Presently, about 130 million hectare of land is reported under degraded land in India.
• Approximately, 28% of land belongs to forest degraded area.
• 56% is water eroded land area.
• Rest degraded land is because of over deposition of salinity and alkalinity.
• Overgrazing, mining, deforestation, division of lands in small area because of family disputes, etc. are some of the major causes of degradation of land.
• In the states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh along with mining, deforestation in these states has degraded the land very fast.
• In the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra overgrazing is the major cause of land degradation.
• In the states of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, over irrigation causes water shortage and increase in salinity and alkalinity due to water logging.
• In Bihar, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, land is degraded because of flood.
• The degradation of land creates many problems, such as flood, decrease in yield, etc. which leads to decrease in GDP and country has to face economic problems.

Land Degradation & Conservation
Common causes of land degradation are:
1. Deforestation
2. Overgrazing
3. Urbanization
4. Industrialization
5. Dumping of Chemical Wastes
6. Excessive use of Fertilizers
7. Bad Farming Techniques

Some of the measures to control land degradation are:
1. Constructing retention walls in the mountain areas to stop landslides.
2. Land Reclamation (i.e. Proper management of waste lands)
3. Regulated use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
4. Afforestation
5. Check on Overgrazing
6. Control of Mining Activities
7. By proper irrigation.
8. By proper harvesting.
9. Discharge of industrial waste and effluents only after proper treatment.
10. By preventing the deforestation.

 

SOIL

• The uppermost or topmost layer of the earth's crust is known as soil. It is the loose material consisting of organic and inorganic substances.
(Humus is a dark coloured stable form of organic matter that remains after most of plant or animals residues have decomposed).
• Most of the food items like wheat, rice, pulses, fruits, vegetables, etc. are obtained from plants that grow on soil. Soil provides food, cloth and shelter, etc.

Factors of Soil Formation:
1. Relief: Altitude and slope determines the accumulation of soil.
2. Parent Rock: It determines, colour, texture, chemical properties, mineral contents, etc.
3. Climate: Rainfall and temperature influence rate of humus and weathering.
4. Time: It determines thickness of soil profile.
5. Organisms: Microorganisms & vegetation affect the rate of humus formation.

Soil Profile:

Soil profile refers to the different layers of the soil. There are four different layers:
1. Top soil
2. Sub Soil
3. Weathered Rock
4. Bed Rock or Parent Rock

1. Top Soil:
• It is the uppermost layer.
• Rich in humus and minerals.
• Consists of Sand, Silt & Clay.

2. Sub Soil:
• It lies below the top soil and supports moisture.
• Consists of weathered rock, Silt & Clay and some nutrients.

3. Weathered Rock

4. Bed Rock:
• Consists of solid layer of unweathered Rock.

Classification of Soil:

Soils are classified on the basis of colour, texture, fertility, mineral content, etc. Broadly, soil is classified into six types: -
1. Alluvial Soil
2. Black Soil
3. Red & Yellow Soil
4. Laterite Soil
5. Arid Soil
6. Forest Soil

1. Alluvial Soil:
• It is the most important and most fertile type of soil found in India covering about 40 per cent of the total land area.
• Soil is formed by the deposition of sediments brought down by the rivers.
• The alluvial soil is found mostly in the Northern Plains and Coastal Plains of India (Particularly deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri).
• The fine particles of sand, silt and clay are called alluvium. The alluvial soil can be divided into old alluvium, also called Bangar, and new alluvium, called Khadar.
• Alluvial soil has adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which is ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat, etc.
• Regions of Alluvial soil are intensively cultivated and are densely populated.

2. Black Soil:
• The black soil is also called the Regur Soil or the Black Cotton Soil. Cotton grows best in this soil.
• Black soil is formed from the weathering of the igneous rocks.
• The black soil is mostly found in the Deccan Trap, covering large areas of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. It is also found in some parts of Godavari and Krishna river valleys, covering parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
• Black soil has high concentration of fine particles and thus can hold moisture for long time.
• It contains calcium carbonate, potassium, magnesium and lime.
• This soil is poor in phosphoric contents.

3. Red & Yellow Soil:
• Red soil is derived from the weathering of the igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is found in the areas of low rainfall.
• The red colour is due to the high percentage of iron contents.
• Red & Yellow soils are found in the parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh Ganga plain and Western Ghats. It is also found in the southern and eastern parts of the peninsular plateau.

4. Laterite Soil:
• Laterite has been derived from a Latin word called "Later" which means Brick.
• The laterite soil is widely spread areas with high temperature and rainfall. This causes leaching of the soil and microorganisms are killed during the process.
• This soil is mainly found in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and in hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.
• Due to intensive leaching, the laterite soil generally lacks fertility and is of low value for crop production. But when manured and timely irrigated, the soil is suitable for producing plantation crops like tea, coffee, rubber, coconut, etc.

Leaching is a process in which heavy rains wash away the fertile part of the soil.

5. Forest Soil:
• The Forest soil is generally found on the hill slopes covered with forests.
• This type of soil is found in the Himalayan region, the Western and Eastern Ghats and in some parts of the Peninsular India.
• Soil is loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes.
• This soil is rich in humus, but poor in potash, phosphorus and lime.
• This soil is especially suitable for producing plantation crops, such as tea, coffee.

6. Arid Soil:
• The Arid soil is found mostly in the arid and semi-arid regions, receiving less than 50 cm of annual rainfall.
• Soil colour ranges from red to brown.
• Sandy in texture and saline in nature.
• Soil lacks in humus and moisture.
• The lower layer of the soil is occupied by Kankar because of increasing calcium content downwards.
• Such regions are mostly found in Rajasthan and the adjoining areas of Haryana and Punjab. The Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat is an extension of this region.
• The desert soil has sand (90 to 95 per cent) and clay (5 to 10 per cent).

 

SOIL EROSION AND SOIL CONSERVATION
• The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion.
Or
• Removal of top soil is called soil erosion.
• The running water cuts through the clayey soil and makes deep channels known as Gullies.
• The land becomes unfit for cultivation and is known as Bad Land.

DEGRADATION OF SOIL
• Soil erosion is the degradation of soil by human activities.
• Following are the factors responsible for the soil erosion: -
1. Deforestation
2. Overgrazing
3. Construction
4. Overuse of Chemical Fertilizers
5. Pesticides
6. Natural Calamities (Flood, landslides, etc.)

CONSERVATION OF SOIL
• Soil conservation means protection, preservation and proper utilization of the soil.
• Some methods of soil conservation are: -

1. Mulching: Bare ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw. It helps to retail soil moisture.
2. Contour Ploughing: Ploughing along contours can decrease the flow of water down the slopes.
3. Terrace Cultivation: Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces.

4. Strip Cropping: Strips of grass are grown between the crops. This breaks the force of wind.

5. Shelter Belts: Rows of trees are planted to create shelter. Thus, the speed of wind is reduced.
6. Rock Dam: Rocks are piled to slow the speed of wind.
7. Contour Barriers: Stones, grass, soil are used to make barriers. Trenches are made in front of the barriers to collect water.
8. Afforestation, Crop Rotation, Control over Deforestation and Overgrazing, etc.

 

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