28 December, 2017

Class X: Chapter 7 (Lifelines of National Economy) Extra Questions

Q1. What are considered as the lifelines of national economy?
Q2. Name the classification of roads.
Q3. Name the different organizations responsible for the construction and upkeep of different types of roads located in India.
Q4. Name the classification of roads on the basis of the type of material used.
Q5. What is Road Density?
Q6. What are the major problems faced by Indian Roads?
Q7. Write a note on the first train of India.
Q8. Name the different rail gauge found in India.
Q9. In how many zones Indian railways have been divided?
Q10. What are the major problems faced by Indian Railways?
Q11. Name the three important networks of pipeline transportation in India.
Q12. Highlight any five key features of waterways.
Q13. How many waterways have been declared as the national waterways by the government of India? Name them.
Q14. There are how many major and minor sea ports in India?
Q15. Which was the first port developed soon after independence?
Q16. What is the total length of coastline in India?
Q17. Name the different sea ports of India used for exporting iron ore to different parts of the world.
Q18. When was the air transportation nationalized in India?
Q19. Name few of the airlines operating in India.
Q20. Highlight important airports in India.
Q21. Name the six mail channels that have been introduced recently for the quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities in India.
Q22. Highlight major means of Personal communication and mass communication in the country.
Q23. Mention key features of the Indian Postal Service.
Q24. Write a short note on All India Radio (Akashwani) and Doordarshan.
Q25. Describe the role of newspapers in India.
Q26. What is international trade?
Q27. Define: (a) Import (b) Export (c) Balance of Trade
Q28. Write a note on tourism in India.
Q29. Which industry in India has emerged in last fifteen years?
Q30. What are the two main components of international trade?

 

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20 December, 2017

Class IX: Chapter 6 (Population) Questions & Answers

Q1. Define: (a) Adolescence      (b) Census      (c) Death Rate      (d) Birth Rate
Ans:
(a) Adolescence: Adolescence is a period in which a person is no longer a child and not yet an adult. Such persons are grouped in the age group of 10 to 19 years.

(b) Census: The official collection of population data by all means is known as Census. This is conducted once in ten years. In 1872, first population census of India was conducted, but the first complete census was conducted in 1881. Currently, we are following 2011 census, this is the fifteenth census starting from 1872.

(c) Death Rate: The number of deaths per 1000 persons is called death rate.

(d) Birth Rate: The number of live births per 1000 persons is called birth rate.

Q2. What is age structure or age composition?
Ans: Number of people in different age groups in country is called age structure or age composition of the population. Population of a nation is generally grouped into three broad categories:
(a) Children (Below 15 years of age): Economically unproductive and needs to be provided with the necessities of life (food, cloth, education, etc.)
(b) Working age (15 – 59 years): Economically and biologically productive
(c) Aged (Above 59 years of age): They can be economically productive even after retirement.

Q3. What are the three major aspects of population study?
Ans: The three major questions to be answered when we study about population are:
(a) Population Size and Distribution.
(b) Population Growth and Process of Population Change.
(c) Characteristics or qualities of the population.

Q4. What is meant by sex ratio? Give reasons for low sex ratio in India.
Ans: Number of female per thousand male is called sex ratio. Following are some of the reasons (mindset of the people) for low sex ratio in India:
(a) Girls in India are taken as a liability, one day she will get married and leave the house; Parents have to pay a huge dowry.
(b) Safety and security is a great concern for family.
(c) India is a male dominated country.
(d) Female Feticide, girl child are killed before her birth.
(e) Females often face Malnutrition, leading to ill health.

Q5. Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
Ans: The rate of population growth in India is declining since 1981 because:
(a) The family planning programme initiated by the government made a great impact on the mindset of the people.
(b) Educational programmes have improved the literacy rate helping in increasing the awareness about the benefits of smaller family size.
(c) Parents became aware and wanted to give better quality of life to their children, i.e. good education, food, clothing, health, etc

Q6. What is the relation between occupational structure and development?
Ans: Occupational structure has got a great impact on the development of any country. In India more than 60% of the population is engaged in the agricultural activities and thus, are still dependent on the primary sector for employment, which is one of the reasons for lack of development in India. The developed nations suggest that when a greater portion of population engages in secondary and tertiary activities, it leads to great development.

Q7. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Ans: It is rightly said, a healthy mind resides in a healthy body. Human resource is the most important resource for the development of a country. A healthy population helps in building a productive workforce for the country. If the health of the population is properly looked after, people can put in more number of working hours and thus, the production level of the country can be increased. Even the non-productive age group needs to be healthy to reduce the burden of healthcare. Healthy children would grow into healthy adults and would be able to contribute better in the economy. Healthy elders would mean less drain on the resources.

Q8. What is migration? How migration leads to population change?
Ans: Movement of people from one place to another; in search of livelihood is called migration. Migration can be classified into two:
(a) Migration within the country is called internal migration.
(b) Migration between two countries is called international migration.
Internal migration has no change on population size but it changes the population composition of a particular area. International migration can lead to a growth or decline in population; depending on the degree of immigration and emigration.
In India, Poverty and lack of employment opportunities in rural areas work as 'push' factors which result in migration to urban areas. Better employment opportunities in urban areas work as 'pull' factors for migration. Due to increased migration towards urban areas, the share of urban population has increased from 17.29% in 1951 to 27.78% in 2001.

Q9. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?
Ans: The new national population policy of 2000 was announced by the Government of India, its main features are:
(a) Redress the unmet needs for basic reproductive and child health services, supplies and infrastructure.
(b) Free and compulsory school education up to age 14, for both boys and girls.
(c) Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
(d) Reduce maternal mortality ratio to below 100 per 100,000 live births.
(e) Achieve universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
(f) Promote delayed marriage for girls, not earlier than age 18 and preferably after 20 years of age.
(g) Achieve 80 per cent institutional deliveries and 100 percent deliveries by trained persons.
(h) Making family welfare a people centered programme.
(i) Preventing and controlling transmissible diseases.

Q10. Map Work (As per 2011 Census)
(A) Densely populated state of India
(B) Less populated state of India
(C) The state of highest density of population
(D) The state of lowest density of population
(E) The state of highest literacy rate
(F) The state of lowest literacy rate
(G) The state of highest sex ratio
(H) The state of lowest sex ratio
Ans:
(A) Densely populated state of India - Uttar Pradesh
(B) Less populated state of India - Sikkim
(C) The state of highest density of population - Bihar
(D) The state of lowest density of population - Arunachal Pradesh
(E) The state of highest literacy rate - Kerala
(F) The state of lowest literacy rate - Bihar
(G) The state of highest sex ratio - Kerala
(H) The state of lowest sex ratio - Haryana

 

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09 December, 2017

Class X: Chapter 6 (Manufacturing Industries) Extra Questions for Practice

Q1.  Define Manufacturing.
Q2.  Define Industry.
Q3.  Mention importance of manufacturing.
Q4.  What are the different physical and human factors responsible for the industrial location?
Q5.  What is "Agglomeration Economics"?
Q6.  Draw a flow chart to define classification of industries.
Q7.  Define classification of industries on the basis of capital investment.
Q8.  Give examples (two each) of classification of industries on the basis of ownership.
Q9.  Why Maharashtra and Gujarat emerged as the hub of cotton textile industries in India?
Q10. What are the different problems faced by cotton textile industries in India?
Q11. India exports cotton goods to which all countries?
Q12. In which location jute is majorly produced?
Q13. Which country is the largest producer of jute in the world?
Q14. When the National Jute Policy was formulated?
Q15. Major sugar industries are spread across which all states?
Q16. Name the major public sector and private sector iron and steel industries in India.
Q17. What are the different challenges for Sugar industry?
Q18. Why most of the iron and steel industries are in the Chota-Nagpur plateau region?
Q19. Which city is known as the electronic capital of India?
Q20. Name the major centers of automobile industry.
Q21. Name the major manufacturers of cars, commercial vehicles and two & three-wheelers in India.
Q22. Name the important centers of Information Technology and Electronics Industry in India.
Q23. What different Preventing measures can be taken to protect the environmental degradation done by the Industries in India?
Q24. Map Work:
(A) Cotton Textile Industries: Mumbai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Surat, Kanpur, Coimbatore and Madurai

(B) Iron and Steel Plants: Burnpur, Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur, Raurkela, Bhilai, Vijaynagar, Bhadravati, Vishakhapatnam and Salem

(C) Software Technology Parks: Mohali, Noida, Jaipur, Gandhinagar, Indore, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata, Bhubaneshwar, Vishakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mysore, Chennai and Thiruvanantapuram

 

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08 December, 2017

Class X: Chapter 6 (Manufacturing Industries) Question & Answers

Q1. Define:  (a) Manufacturing     (b) Industries.
Ans: (a) Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw material to more valuable products is called "Manufacturing".
(b) Industry: Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.

Q2. What is Agglomeration Economies?
Ans: Many Industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centre's known as agglomeration economies.

Q3. Define classification of industries on the basis of Ownership.
Ans: Following is classification of industries on the basis of Ownership:
(a) Private Sector Industries: Owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. Bajaj Auto, Reliance, etc.
(b) Public Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the government. E.g. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. (BHEL), SAIL, etc.
(c) Joint Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. OIL (Oil India Ltd.), Maruti Udyog Limited., Gujarat State Fertilizers, Cochin Refineries, etc.
(d) Co-operative Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Mutually they get the resources and share the profit and losses. E.g. Sugar industry in Maharashtra, Coir industry in Kerala, etc.

Q4. Highlight the Problems faced by cotton textile industries in India.
Ans: Following are some of the problems faced by cotton textile industries in India:
(a) Unpredictable power supply.
(b) Obsolete machinery.
(c) Low output of labour.
(d) Stiff competition with the synthetic fiber.

Q5. Describe the factors responsible for the development of jute industry in the Hugli basin.
Ans: Given below are the factors responsible for the development of jute industry in the Hugli basin:
(a) Closeness of the jute producing areas.
(b) Inexpensive water transport.
(c) Good network of railways, roadways and waterways.
(d) Abundant water for processing raw jute.
(e) Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
(f) Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.

Q6. Mention the key points of Automobile Industry in India.
Ans: Some of the key points of Automobile Industries in India are as follows:
(a) Almost all types of vehicles are manufactured in India.
(b) After liberalization in 1991, many automobile manufacturers set up their base in India.
(c) With the launch of contemporary models, India became an attractive market for automobiles.
(d) At present, there are 15 manufacturers of cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of two and three-wheelers.
(e) Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Sanand, Pantnagar, etc. are the major centers of automobile industry.

Q7. Describe the characteristics and distribution of iron and steel industries in India.
Ans: Following are the characteristics and distribution of iron and steel industries in India:
(a) This is basic industry.
(b) These industries are the feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries.
(c) Due to this, production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country's development.
(d) India is 9th among the world crude steel producers and produces 32.8 million tons of steel.
(e) India is the largest producer of sponge iron. But per capita consumption of steel is only 32 kg per annum.
(f) At present, there are 10 primary integrated steel plants in India. Additionally, there are many mini steel plants in the country.
(g) SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited) is the major public sector company in this sector, while TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) is the major private sector company in this industry.
(h) Most of the iron and steel industries are in the Chotanagpur plateau region. This region has plenty of low cost iron ore, high grade raw materials, cheap labour and good connectivity through railways and roadways.

Q8. Explain different types of pollutions caused by industries.
Ans: Industries are responsible for majorly four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
(a) Air Pollution: High proportion of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide create air pollution. Suspended particulate matters also create problems. Smoke is emitted from chimneys of various factories. Some industry also pose the risk of leak of hazardous chemicals; the way it happened during the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Air pollution has adverse effect on human health, animals, plants, buildings, and the atmosphere as a whole.
(b) Water Pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents cause water pollution. Paper, pulp, chemical, textile, dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries, etc. are the main culprits of water pollution.
(c) Thermal Pollution: It occurs when hot water from factories or thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. This plays havoc with the aquatic life.
Waste from nuclear power plants contains highly radioactive materials and it needs to be properly stored. Any leakage of radioactive material can cause short term and long term damages to humans as well as to other life forms.
(d) Noise Pollution: Noise pollution can result in constant irritation, hypertension and hearing impairment. Factory equipments, generators, electric drills, etc. are the major sources of noise pollution.

Q9. What different steps can be taken to minimize the environmental degradation done by the industries?
Ans: Given below are some of the steps that can be taken to minimize the environmental degradation done by the industries:
(a) Chimneys should be fitted with electrostatic precipitators to prevent release of suspended particulate matters.
(b) Water should be reused and recycled in the industry. This will help in minimizing the use of freshwater.
(c) Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
(d) Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released in rivers and ponds.

Q10. On the map of India locate the following:
(A) Cotton Textile Industry: MUMBAI
(B) Cotton Textile Industry: AHMEDABAD
(C) Cotton Textile Industry: KANPUR
(D) Cotton Textile Industry: MADURAI
(E) Iron and Steel Plant: JAMSHEDPUR
(F) Iron and Steel Plant: BHILAI
(G) Iron and Steel Plant: VISHAKHAPATNAM
(H) Iron and Steel Plant: SALEM
(I) Software Technology Park: BHUBANESHWAR
(J) Software Technology Park: HYDERABAD
(K) Software Technology Park: BANGALURU
(L) Software Technology Park: THIRUVANANTHAPURAM

Ans:

 

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07 December, 2017

Class X: Chapter 6 (Manufacturing Industries)

Objectives and Goals:

(a) Define the term Manufacturing and Industries.
(b) Three types of economic activities (i.e. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary).
(c) Importance of Manufacturing.
(d) Contribution of Industry to National Economy.
(e) Industrial Location (Factors effecting the location of an Industry).
(f) Industrial Market Linkage (The Industrial System).
(g) Classification of Industries (i.e. On the basis of Raw Materials, On the basis of Investment: Large Scale Industries, Small Scale Industries and On the basis of Ownership: Private Sector Industries, Public Sector Industries, Joint Sector Industries, Co-operative Sector Industries).
(h) Agro Based Industries (Textile Industry: Cotton & Jute, Sugar Industry)
(i) Mineral Based Industries (Iron & Steel Industry, Automobile Industry, Information Technology & Electronics Industry)
(j) Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation: Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Thermal Pollution, Noise Pollution).
(k) Control of Environmental Degradation.
(l) National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)

There are three types of economic activities. These are:
1. Primary Activities: Connected with extraction and production of natural resources like forestry, agriculture, mining, animal husbandry, etc.
2. Secondary Activities: Connected with processing and manufacturing. They get raw material from the Primary sector. When the primary product is processed into a secondary product, its utility and value is increased.
3. Tertiary Activities: Provides support to Primary and Secondary sectors through services, e.g. transportation, banking, tourism, etc.

 

MANUFACTURING: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw material to more valuable products is called "Manufacturing".

INDUSTRY: Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.

 

THE ECONOMIC STRENGTH OF A COUNTRY IS MEASURED BY THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES.

 

IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES:
(a) Industrial growth helps in modernising the agricultural activities by providing machinery, chemicals, irrigation facilities, insecticides, pesticides, etc..
(b) Industrial growth helps in reducing the unemployment and poverty.
(c) Industrial growth can earn foreign exchange by exporting the finished goods and thus, can expand its trade and commerce.
(d) Any country with high level of manufacturing activities becomes prosperous.

 

CONTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRY TO NATIONAL ECONOMY:
(a) The share of manufacturing sector in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has been stagnant at 17% over the last two decades.
(b) The total contribution of industry to the GDP is 27% out of which 10% comes from mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.
(c) The growth of the manufacturing sector had been 7% in the last decade. Since 2003, the growth rate has been 9 to 10% per annum. The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12%.
(d) The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set with the objectives of improving productivity through proper policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry.

 

INDUSTRIAL LOCATION
Factors effecting the location of an Industry:
(a) Physical Factors
(b) Human Factors
(c) Key to decision of industrial location is "LEAST COST".
(d) Government policies and specialized labours also influence the location of industry.

Agglomeration Economies: Many Industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centre's known as agglomeration economies. Gradually, a large industrial agglomeration takes place.

• Industrialization leads to Urbanization.

 

INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM

• An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs.

Input: Raw materials, labour, costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.

Process: All activities that convert the raw material into finished products.

Output: End/ Final/Finished product and the income earned from it.

 

INDUSTRY – MARKET LINKAGE

 

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES:

1. On the basis of Raw Materials:
These types of industries are classified depending on the type of raw materials they use.
(a) Agro Based Industries: Use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. E.g. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products, etc.
(b) Mineral Based Industries: Primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. E.g. Iron& Steel, Cement, Machine Tools, etc.

According to their main role:
1. Basic or Key Industries: These industries supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods, e.g. iron and steel, copper smelting, aluminium smelting, etc.
2. Consumer Industries: These industries produce goods which are directly used by consumers, e.g. sugar, paper, electronics, soap, etc.

2. On the basis of Investment:
These types of industries are classified depending on the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production.
(a) Large Scale Industries: In India, on an industry, if the capital invested is more than 1 crore, then it is called Large Scale Industry. e.g. Iron & Steel Industries, Automobile Industries, etc.
(b) Small Scale Industries: In India, on an industry, if the capital invested is less than 1 crore, then it is called Small Scale Industry. E.g. Silk weaving, Food processing industries, etc.

3. On the basis of Ownership:
(a) Private Sector Industries: Owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. e.g. Bajaj Auto, Reliance, etc.
(b) Public Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the government. e.g. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. (BHEL), SAIL, etc.
(c ) Joint Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. e.g. OIL (Oil India Ltd.), Maruti Udyog Limited., Gujarat State Fertilizers, Cochin Refineries, etc.
(d) Co-operative Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Mutually they get the resources and share the profit and losses. e.g. Sugar industry in Maharashtra, Coir industry in Kerala, etc.

4. On the basis of the Bulk and Weight of Raw Materials and Finished Goods:
(a) Heavy Industries: Use heavy and bulky raw material and produce heavy goods. E.g. Iron and Steel Industry.
(b) Light Industries: Use light raw material and produce light goods. E.g. Electrical Industries.

 

AGRO BASED INDUSTRIES
Following are some of the type of industries using agricultural raw material:
(a) Textile Industries: Cotton, Jute, Silk, Woollen, etc.
(b) Sugar and Edible Oil, etc.

 

TEXTILE INDUSTRY
(a) The textile industry contributes 14% to industrial production in India.
(b) 35 million persons are directly employed in the textiles industry in India.
(c) In terms of employment generation, this industry is the second largest after agriculture.
(d) It earns approximately 24.6% of the foreign exchange.
(e) The contribution of textiles industry to GDP is 4%.
(f) This is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain.

Cotton Textiles:
(a) Cotton textiles were traditionally produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques.
(b) Power-looms came into use after the 18th century. During the colonial period, the competition of mill-made cloth from England destroyed the Indian textiles industry.
(c) By November 2011 there were 1946 cotton and synthetic textile mills in India.
(d) Almost 80% of them are in the private sector. The rest are in the public sector and cooperative sector.
(e) Additionally, there are several thousand small factories with four to ten looms.

Location of Cotton Textile Industry:
(a) This industry was earlier concentrated in the cotton belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
(b) Availability of raw materials, port facilities, transport, labour, moist climate, etc. were in favour of these locations.
(c) The industry provides a source of livelihood to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
(d) This industry supports many other industries; like chemical and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.
(e) Spinning still continues to be centralized in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
(f) However, weaving is highly decentralized and there are many weaving centers in the country.
(g) India has world class production in spinning but weaving supplies low quality of fabrics as it cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.
(h) The handspun khadi provides large scale employment to weavers in their homes as cottage industry.
(i) India exports cotton yarn to Japan. Cotton goods are also exported to USA, UK, Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka and African countries.
(j) At around 34 million, India has the second largest installed capacity of spindles in the world; after China.
(k) India accounts for one fourth of the world trade in cotton yarn. However, India's share in garment trade in the world is only 4%.
(l) Our spinning mills are globally competitive and can use all the fibres we produce. But the weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.

Problems faced by cotton textile industries in India:
(a) Unpredictable power supply.
(b) Obsolete machinery.
(c) Low output of labour.
(d) Stiff competition with the synthetic fiber.

 

Jute Textiles:
(a) India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods in the world.
(b) It is the second largest exporter of jute; after Bangladesh.
(c) In 2010-11 there were 80 jute mills in India.
(d) Most of these mills are located in West Bengal; mainly along the bank of river Hooghly.
(e) The jute industry is in a narrow belt which is 98 km long and 3 km wide.

Location advantages of Hooghly basin:
(a) Proximity of the jute producing areas.
(b) Inexpensive water transport.
(c) Good rail and road network.
(d) Abundant water for processing raw jute.
(e) Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
(f) The jute industry directly supports 2.61 lakh workers.
(g) It also supports 40 lakh small and marginal farmers who are engaged in cultivation of jute and mesta.
(h) Jute industry is facing challenge from synthetic fiber and also from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand. But the internal demand has been rising because of government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
(i) The National Jute Policy was formulated in 2005 with an objective to increase productivity, improve quality and ensure good prices for the jute farmers.
(j) Due to growing global concern for environment friendly and biodegradable material; the future of jute looks bright.
(k) USA, Canada, Russia, UAE, UK and Australia are the main markets.

 

Sugar Industry:
(a) India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world.
(b) It is the largest producer of gur and khandsari.
(c) There are over 460 sugar mills in the country.
(d) They are spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.
(e) Sixty percent mills are in UP and Bihar.
(f) This industry is seasonal and hence is more suited to the cooperative sector.
(g) In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states; especially in Maharashtra.
(h) The cane produced in this region has higher sucrose content. The cooler climate of this region ensures a longer crushing season.

Challenges for Sugar industry:
(a) Seasonal nature of industry.
(b) Old and inefficient methods of production.
(c) Transport delay and the need to maximize the use of baggase are the major challenges for this industry.

 

MINERAL BASED INDUSTRIES

Iron & Steel Industry
(a) This is basic industry.
(b) These industries are the feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries.
(c) Due to this, production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country's development.
(d) India is 9th among the world crude steel producers and produces 32.8 million tons of steel.
(e) India is the largest producer of sponge iron. But per capita consumption of steel is only 32 kg per annum.
(f) At present, there are 10 primary integrated steel plants in India. Additionally, there are many mini steel plants in the country.
(g) SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited) is the major public sector company in this sector, while TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) is the major private sector company in this industry.
(h) Most of the iron and steel industries are in the Chotanagpur plateau region. This region has plenty of low cost iron ore, high grade raw materials, cheap labour and good connectivity through railways and roadways.

Reasons for underperformance of Iron and steel Industry in India:
(a) High cost and limited availability of coking coal.
(b) Low productivity of labour.
(c) Erratic energy supply.
(d) Poor infrastructure.

 

Automobile Industry
(a) Almost all types of vehicles are manufactured in India.
(b) After liberalization in 1991, many automobile manufacturers set up their base in India.
(c) With the launch of contemporary models, India became an attractive market for automobiles.
(d) At present, there are 15 manufacturers of cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of two and three-wheelers.
(e) Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Bangalore, Sanand, Pantnagar, etc. are the major centers of automobile industry.

 

Information Technology and Electronics Industry
(a) Bangalore is often termed as the electronic capital of India.
(b) Mumbai, Pune, Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore are the other important centers.
(c) There are 18 software technology parks in the country and they provide single window service and high data communication to software experts.
(d) This industry had generated a large number of employments.
(e) Upto 31 March 2005, over one million persons were employed in the IT industry. Because of fast growth of BPO (Business Process Outsourcing); this sector has been a major earner of foreign exchange.

 

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
• Industries are responsible for majorly four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
• The polluting industries also include thermal power plants.

(a) Air Pollution: High proportion of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide create air pollution. Suspended particulate matters also create problems. Smoke is emitted from chimneys of various factories. Some industry also pose the risk of leak of hazardous chemicals; the way it happened during the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Air pollution has adverse effect on human health, animals, plants, buildings, and the atmosphere as a whole.

(b) Water Pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents cause water pollution. Paper, pulp, chemical, textile, dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries, etc. are the main culprits of water pollution.

(c) Thermal Pollution: It occurs when hot water from factories or thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. This plays havoc with the aquatic life.
Waste from nuclear power plants contains highly radioactive materials and it needs to be properly stored. Any leakage of radioactive material can cause short term and long term damages to humans as well as to other life forms.

(d) Noise Pollution: Noise pollution can result in constant irritation, hypertension and hearing impairment. Factory equipments, generators, electric drills, etc. are the major sources of noise pollution.

 

Preventing Environmental Degradation by Industry:
(a) Industries are responsible for majorly four types of pollution: Air, Water, Land and Noise.
(b) Water should be reused and recycled in the industry.
(c) This will help in minimizing the use of freshwater.
(d) Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
(e) Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released in rivers and ponds.

 

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29 November, 2017

Class IX: Chapter 5 (Natural Vegetation & Wildlife) Questions & Answers

Q1. Define Virgin Vegetation.
Ans: The vegetation which has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time is called virgin vegetation. The virgin vegetation, which are purely Indian are known as endemic or indigenous species but those which have come from outside India are termed as exotic plants.

Q2. Define an ecosystem.
Ans: All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent on each other. The plants and animals, along with their physical environment make the ecosystem. Interrelation between plants and animals in the natural environment is called Ecosystem.

Q3. What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?
Ans: Factors responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India are:
(a) Relief: Land and soil
(b) Climate: Temperature, Humidity, Photoperiod and Precipitation.

Q4. What is a bio-reserve? Name the four biosphere reserves in India which have been included in the world network of Biosphere reserves.
Ans: A biosphere reserve is an area of land or water that is protected by law in order to support the conservation of ecosystems, as well as the sustainability of mankind's impact on the environment.
Four biosphere reserves in India which have been included in the world network of Biosphere reserves are:
(a) Sunderbans in West Bengal
(b) Nanda Devi in Uttaranchal,
(c) The Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu
(d) The Nilgiris (Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu).

Q5. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?
Ans: Species of some plants and animals are on the verge of extinction as their population has decreased considerably. Such species are known as "Endangered Species".
Following are the reasons behind species becoming endangered:
(a) Increase in population.
(b) Urbanization and Industrialization.
(c) Large scale deforestation.
(d) Pollution.
(e) Hunting for pleasure and commercial purpose, etc.

Q6. Name different types of Vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.
Ans: There are five major types of vegetation in India: Tropical Rainforests, Tropical Deciduous Forests, Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs, Montane Forests and Mangrove Forests.

Montane Forest:
(a) The forests in the mountainous areas are called montane forest.
(b) Different types of vegetation are found at different altitudes in the mountains.
     (i) The wet temperate type of forest is found between a height of 1000 and 2000 meter. Evergreen broad-leaf             trees such as oak and chestnut abound in such forests.
     (ii) Between the heights of 1500 and 3000 meters, Coniferous trees; like Pine, Deodar, Silver Fir, Cedar, etc.              are found.
     (iii) At the height of 3600 meters, alpine vegetation is found; such as Silver Fir, Junipers, Pines, Birches, etc.               are found.
     (iv) At the higher altitude Tundra vegetations are found; such as Mosses and Lichens.
(c) Kashmir Stag, Wild Sheep, Yak, Snow Leopard, Bear, Rare Red Panda, etc. are the common animals in these forests.

Q7. Distinguish between Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs Forest and Mangrove Forests.
Ans:

 

Q8. Distinguish between Tropical Evergreen Forest and Deciduous Forests.

Ans:

 

Q9. In India, what are the various steps taken to conserve forest and wildlife?
Ans: Following are few steps that have been taken to conserve forest and wildlife:
(a) National Forest Policy framed by the government should be implemented.
(b) National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Bioreserves, Botanical Gardens have been setup.
(c) Special Projects (E.g. Project Tiger, Project Elephant, etc.).
(d) Celebration of Van Mahotsav. Every National festival is followed by tree plantation ceremony.
(e) Controlling of deforestation and overgrazing. Large scale afforestation or planting of tress is undertaken.
(f) Social Awareness Programmes to be implemented.
(g) Wildlife Protection Act 1972.

 Q10. On the outline map of India, label the following:
(A) Four Biosphere reserves in India, included in the world network of Biosphere reserves.
(B) Two National Parks each in Northern parts of the Country.
(C) Two National Parks each in Southern parts of the Country.
(D) Two National Parks each in Eastern parts of the Country.
(E) Two National Parks each in Western parts of the Country.
Ans:

 

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