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Nirman Care - an educational blog - Welcome to Nirman Care - Class VIII
Nirman Care - an educational blog

Class VIII: Chapter 1 (Resource) Multiple Choice Questions:

Q1. Resources that we find in nature and are used without much modification are called ..................
(a) Human Resource
(b) Natural Resource
(c) Renewable Resource
(d) Human Made Resource

Q2. Natural resource are classified into various types on the basis of: (select the incorrect one)
(a) Distribution
(b) Development
(c) Origin
(d) Destruction

Q3. All non-living things are known as ..................
(a) Biotic Resource
(b) Exhaustible Resource
(c) Abiotic Resource
(d) Human Resource

Q4. Anything that can be used to satisfy human needs is a ..................
(a) Thing
(b) Value
(c) Resource
(d) Utility

Q5. Resources which can be renewed or reproduced are known as ..................
(a) Exhaustible Resource
(b) Renewable Resource
(c) Non-Renewable Resource
(d) Useful Resource

Q6. .................. Resources refer to the number and ability of the people. E.g. knowledge, skill, etc.
(a) Biotic Resource
(b) Human Made Resource
(c) Human Resource
(d) Abiotic Resource

Q7. A thing becomes a resource when it's .................. has been identified.
(a) Character
(b) Area
(c) Utility
(d) Availability

Q8. Balancing the need to use resources and also conserve them for the future is called ..................
(a) Sustainable Development
(b) Resource Conservation
(c) Resource Development
(d) Sustainable Conservation

Q9. Which one of the following is not a "Value"?
(a) Aesthetic Value
(b) Economic Value
(c) Artistic Value
(d) Ethical Value

Q10. Resources are generally classified into:
(a) 2 Types
(b) 3 Types
(c) 4 Types
(d) 5 Types

Q11. People use natural resources to make buildings, bridges, roads, machinery and vehicles, which are known as ..................
(a) Human Made Resource
(b) Human Resource
(c) Natural Resource
(d) Un-Natural Resource

Q12. Different ways to conserve natural resources are: (select the incorrect one)
(a) Preventing wastage
(b) Save Water
(c) Deforestation
(d) Aforestation

Q13. Value means ..................
(a) Utility
(b) Worth
(c) Money
(d) Wealth

Q14. .................. resources are found in a region but have not been utilized, might be because of the lack of technology.
(a) Potential Resource
(b) Localized Resource
(c) Actual Resource
(d) Ubiquitous Resource

Q15. Resources created by human beings are called ..................
(a) Natural Resource
(b) Useful Resource
(c) Industrial Resource
(d) Man Made Resource

Q16. Some of the principles of Sustainable Development are: (select the incorrect one)
(a) Minimise the depletion of natural resources
(b) Respect and care for all forms of life
(c) Conserve the earth's vitality & diversity
(d) Government should only take care

Q17. Factors which help in the development of resources are:
(a) All (b, c & d)
(b) Human Resource
(c) Technology
(d) International Competition

Q18. Resources which are found everywhere are called ..................
(a) Biotic Resource
(b) Potential Resource
(c) Ubiquitous Resource
(d) Renewable Resource

Q19. Using resources carefully, judicially & giving them time to get renewed is called .................
(a) Resource Development
(b) Sustainable Conservation
(c) Sustainable Development
(d) Resource Conservation

Q20. We enjoy the beauty of mountains, waterfalls, sea, landscapes. Thus, they are resources which have ............. value.
(a) Ethical Value
(b) Artistic Value
(c) Aesthetic Value
(d) Economic Value



Class VIII: Chapter 1 (Resources) Question & Answers

Q1. What is a resource?
Ans: Anything that can be used to satisfy human needs is a resource.
All the objects in the environment, which are useful to man and have a value, are called "Resources".

Q2. Define different types of values.
Ans: Value means worth. The use of a resource depends on its value. Following are the types of values:
(a) Economic Value: Some resources can be bought or sold, or can be used to make things that can be bought or sold. For e.g. Minerals.
(b) Aesthetic Value: We enjoy the beauty of mountains, waterfalls, sea, landscapes. Thus, they are resources which have "Aesthetic Value".
(c) Legal Value: Resources like, Air, Water, Land, etc.. Are essential part of life, thus, it become our responsibility to protect them from pollution. These are "Legal Values" of the resources.
(d) Ethical Value: "Ethical Values" of the resources indicates us that we should protect our flora and fauna from intensive cutting of trees and killing of wildlife.

Q3. Define conservation of resources.
Ans:: Using resources carefully, judicially and giving them time to get renewed is called conservation of resources.

Q4. Distinguish between Natural and Human Made Resource.

Q5. Distinguish between Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources.


Q6. Distinguish between Ubiquitous and Localized Resource.

Q7. Distinguish between Potential and Actual Resource.

Q8. Explain sustainable development with its principles.
Ans: Balancing the need to use resources and also conserve them for the future is called sustainable development.
Development of the resources should be done without damaging the environment and the needs of present generation should not be compromised with those of the future generations, this is known as sustainable development.

Some Principles of Sustainable Development:
1. Respect and care for all forms of life.
2. Improve the quality of human life.
3. Conserve the earth's vitality and diversity.
4. Minimise the depletion of natural resources.
5. Change personal attitude and practices toward the environment.
6. Enable communities to care for their own environment.

Q9. "Human beings are important resources". Justify the statement.
Ans. Human resource consists of people. Human resource and its proper development are of great importance. The creative mind of humans and the desire to satisfy their need helped them to produce different products and services that we see, feel and observe in our day-to-day life. For example: iron ore was used to build tools, machines, etc.
People with healthy mind and body have great potential to produce anything that they desire. People can make the best use of nature to create more resources when they have the knowledge, skill and the technology to do so. That is why human beings are a special resource and they are the most valuable resource of the present time.

Q10. Draw a flow chart to explain the classification of resources with examples.



Class VIII: Chapter 9 (Human Resource) Question and Answers

Q1. Define the following:
(a) Demography     (b) Census      (c) Human Resource      (d) Birth Rate      (e) Death Rate      

(f) Annual Growth Rate     (g) Sex Ratio      (h) Density of Population      (i) Migration
(a) Demography: The study of population is known as Demography.

(b) Census: The official collection of population data by all means is known as Census. This is conducted once in ten years. Currently, we are following 2011 census.

(c) Human Resource: Human Resource or people are the greatest asset to a nation. Human beings use their knowledge and skill to convert natural resource into more valuable goods.

(d) Birth Rate: The number of live births per 1000 persons is called birth rate.

(e) Death Rate: The number of deaths per 1000 persons is called death rate.

(f) Annual Growth Rate: The difference between the birth rate and the death rate in a year is called the annual growth rate.

(g) Sex Ratio: The ratio between males and females is known as the sex ratio. It is represented as total number of females per 1000 males. According to 2011 census, sex ration in India is 943 females per 1000 males.

(h) Density of Population: The number of people living in a unit area of the earth's surface is known as density of population. It is normally expressed as per square km.

(i) Migrations: The movement of people in and out of an area is known as migration. Emigrants are people who leave a country; Immigrants are those who arrive in a country.

Q2. What do you mean by the age-sex pyramid?
Ans: Age-sex pyramid also known as the Population Pyramid is a graphical representation of the age, sex composition of the population.

Q3. List out the factors responsible for the rapid growth of world population.
Ans: Factors responsible for the rapid growth of world population are:
(a) Geographical Factors: Relief, Climate, Natural Resources, Soil, Water, Minerals.
(b) Social Factors.
(c) Cultural Factors.
(d) Economic Factors.

Q4. Define age composition.
Ans: The structure of population is known as the Composition of Population. It tells us about the number of people in each age group. The population of any country is broadly divided into three types:
(a) Children: 0 – 14 Years.
(b) Adults: 15 – 59 Years.
(c) Aged: 60 Years and above.

Q5. Write a note on distribution of population.
Ans: Population is unevenly distributed throughout the world. More than 90% of the world population lives in the continents of the Northern Hemisphere, where as only 10% of the population resides in the continents of the Southern Hemisphere.
The number of people living in one sq. km area is known as the density of population and it varies from place to place. As per the density of population, the entire world can be divided into three areas:

(a) Thickly Populated Areas: The fertile river valleys and the industrial regions are thickly or densely populated areas. E.g. Northern plain of India, Western Europe, East-central North America, etc.
(b) Moderately Populated Areas: Areas where new industries have been setup and facilities of irrigation and mining are moderately populated areas. E.g. Deccan plateau of India, Central China, Parts of South America, etc.
(c) Sparsely Populated Areas: Areas with extremely hot or cold climatic conditions, mountainous areas are sparsely populated areas. E.g. Tundra regions in North, Amazon basins, Sahara deserts, etc.

Q6. How would you distinguish between productive and dependent population?



Class VIII: Chapter 6 (Major Crops and Agricultural Development) Question and Answers

Q1. Write a short note explaining the different cropping seasons.
Ans: There are three major cropping seasons, i.e. Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.
(a) Rabi: Crops are sown in winters between October to December and harvested between February to April. Major crops of this season are: wheat, barley, peas, gram, and oilseeds.

(b) Kharif: Crops are sown in summers between May to July and harvested after rain i.e. between September to October. Major crops of this season are: rice, maize, jowar, bajra, sugarcane, jute.

(c) Zaid: In between Rabi and Kharif crops zaid crops like: watermelon, cucumber are grown between April to June.

Q2. What is Agriculture Development?
Ans: Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population. This can be achieved in many ways such as:
(a) Increasing the cropped area.
(b) Multiple cropping (Number of crops grown in a year)
(c) Improving irrigation facilities
(d) Use of fertilizers and high yielding variety of seeds.
(e) Mechanization of agriculture is also another aspect of agricultural development.

Q3. How has Green Revolution changed agriculture in India?
Ans: Dr. Norman Borlaug is known as the father of Green Revolution and Dr. M S Swaminathan is known as the father of Green Revolution in India. Green Revolution had great impact on the entire agricultural world. In India the main effects of green revolution are stated below:
(a) Increase in Agricultural Production
(b) Increase in Per Hectare Yield
(c) Reduction in Import of Food grains
(d) Change in Attitude
(e) Enlargement of Production Function
(f) Impact on Employment
(g) Shift from Traditional Agriculture
(h) Significant Change in Cropping Pattern
(i) Prosperity of Farmers
(j) Industrial Growth

Q4. What are Millets? List out the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of millets.
Ans: Millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as grains. Millets are also known as coarse grains. Geographical conditions required for the cultivation of millets are:
(a) These grains can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils.
(b) It needs low rainfall and high to moderate temperature.
(c) Jowar, bajra and ragi are millet crops grown in India.
(d) Major producers: China, India, Nigeria, USA, Brazil, etc.

Q5. Compare the type of farming in India with that of USA.
Ans. Following is the comparison between India and USA as per the farming

Q6. State the geographical conditions favourable for cultivation of:
(a) Rice (b) Wheat (c) Maize (d) Cotton (e) Tea (f) Coffee
Ans. Following are the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of rice and wheat:-
(a) Rice:
• Rice is the major food crop of the world. It is the staple diet of the tropical and sub-tropical regions.
• Rice needs high temperature, high humidity and rainfall. It grows best in alluvial clayey soil, which can retain water.
• Leading producers of rice in the world: - China, India, Japan, Sri Lanka, etc.

(b) Wheat:
• It requires moderate temperature and rainfall during growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest.
• It requires well drained loamy soil for its growth.
• Wheat is grown extensively in USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India.

(c) Maize:
• Maize is used as both food and fodder crop. It is also known as "Corn".
• Requires moderate temperature, rainfall and lots of sunshine and also, needs well-drained fertile soils.
• Maize is grown in North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada and India.

(d) Cotton:
• Cotton is a fiber crop grown in tropical areas. Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
• It grows best on black soil and requires at least 6 to 8 months.
• China, USA, India, Pakistan, Brazil and Egypt are the leading producers of cotton. It is one of the main raw materials for the cotton textile industry.

(e) Tea:
• Tea is a beverage crop.
• Tea plants grow well in tropical and sub-tropical climate. It requires warm and moist free climate and well distributed frequent showers throughout the year. It needs deep, fertile, well-drained loamy soils and gentle slopes, rich in humus and organic matter.
• Cheap and skilled labour is required in large number to pick the leaves. Tea is processed within the tea gardens to restore its freshness.
• India, Kenya, China, Sri Lanka produce the best quality tea in the world.
• India is the leading producer and exporter of tea. Assam, Darjeeling, West Bengal and Tripura are leading producers of tea in India.

(f) Coffee:
• Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop.
• It requires warm & wet climate and well drained loamy soil.
• Brazil is the leading producer followed by Columbia and India.
• In India coffee is cultivated in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.



Class VIII: Chapter 5 (Agriculture) Question and Answers

Short Answer Questions

Q1. Define: (a) Jhumming (b) Transhumance (c) Arable Land
(a) Jhumming: Shifting agriculture in India is known as Jhumming.
(b) Transhumance: The seasonal movement with livestock, uphill during the summers and downhill during the winters in search of pastures is called Transhumance.
(c) Arable Land: The land on which crops are grown is known as "Arable Land.

Q2. Define: (a) Sericulture (b) Pisciculture (c) Viticulture (d) Horticulture
(a) Sericulture: Rearing of silkworms to obtain silk on a large scale.
(b) Pisciculture: Rearing of fishes on a large scale.
(c) Viticulture: Cultivation of grapes.
(d) Horticulture: Growing vegetables, flowers, fruits and decorative plants for commercial use.

Q3. What is Agriculture?
Ans: The science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock. It is also called farming.
The word "Agriculture" has been derived from the Latin word "Ager or Agri" meaning "Soil" and "Culture" means "Cultivation".

Q4. What is the factors affecting Agriculture?
Ans: Some of the physical and economic factors which greatly influence agriculture are:
Physical Factors: Relief, Climatic Conditions (Temperature, Rainfall, etc.), Fertility of Soil, etc.
Economic Factors: Availability of farm inputs (Capital, Good quality seeds, Fertilizers, Tools & Machines, etc.), Availability of cheap labour, Transportation Facility, Market, Government Policies, etc.

Q5. Differentiate between primary and secondary activities?

Long Answer Questions

Q6. Explain: Types of Farming with the help of a flow chart.
Ans. Farming is practiced in various ways across the world. Depending upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labour and level of technology, farming can be classified into following types:

This type of farming is practiced to meet the needs of the farmer's family. Traditionally, low levels of technology and household labour were used to produce on small output. Subsistence farming can be further classified as intensive subsistence and primitive subsistence farming.

1. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture:
• In intensive subsistence agriculture the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour.
• Climate with large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils permit growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot.
• Rice is the main crop. Other crops include wheat, maize, pulses and oilseeds.
• Intensive subsistence agriculture is practiced in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, southeast and east Asia.

2. Primitive Subsistence Agriculture:
(a) Shifting Cultivation:
• Shifting cultivation is practiced in the thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of Southeast Asia and Northeast India. These are the areas of heavy rainfall and quick regeneration of vegetation.
• A plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown. When soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot.
• Shifting cultivation is also known as 'slash and burn' agriculture.
• It is known by different names in the world – Jhuming in North-Eastern States of India, Milpa in Mexico, Roca in Brazil, Ladang in Malaysia and Ray in Vietnam.

(b) Nomadic Herding:
• Nomadic herding is practiced in the semi-arid and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India, like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.
• In this type of farming, Herder does not grow any fodder but move from one place to another with their animals for fodder and water, along defined routes.
• Sheep, Camel, Yak and Goats are most commonly reared. They provide milk, meat, wool and other products to the herders and their families.

In commercial farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market. The area cultivated and the amount of capital used is large. Most of the work is done by machines. Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides and high yielding variety of seeds are used in order to get maximum output.
Commercial farming includes commercial grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture.
1. Commercial Grain Farming:
• Crops are grown for commercial purpose.
• Wheat and maize are common commercially grown crops.
• Major areas where commercial grain farming is practiced are temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia. These areas are thinly populated with large farms spreading over hundreds of hectares.
• Severe winters restrict the growing season and only a single crop can be grown.

2. Mixed Farming:
• In mixed farming the land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock.
• It is practiced in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

3. Plantations:
• It is also known as "Monoculture", i.e. single crop grown over a large area.
• Plantations are a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown.
• Large amount of labour and capital are required.
• The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories.
• The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming.
• Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.



Class VIII: Chapter 7 (Manufacturing Industries) Question and Answers

Short Answer Questions

Q1. Explain the terms manufacturing and industry with examples.
Ans: Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw material to more valuable products is called "Manufacturing". For e.g. Cotton into cloth, Sugarcane into sugar, etc.
Industry: Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services. For e.g. Textile (Manufacturing), Mining (Extraction of minerals) and Tourism (Service Provider).

Q2. What is the industrial system? Explain the different aspects of industrial system with examples?
Ans: The functioning of an industry depends on a system, known as the industrial system. An industrial system consists of inputs, process and outputs.

For e.g. Cotton Textile Industry:
Input: Cotton as raw materials, labour, costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.
Process: Ginning, Spinning, Weaving, Dyeing, Printing, etc.
Output: Cloth or garments wear.

Q3. What are the inputs, processes and outputs of the iron and steel industry?
Ans: Following are the inputs, processes and outputs of the iron and steel industry:
Inputs: Iron ore, Coal, Limestone, Manganese, Labour, Capital, Cite and other Infrastructure.
Process: Converting iron ore into steel involves many stages. The raw material is put in the blast furnace where it undergoes smelting and then it is refined.
Output: Iron and Steel is obtained which is used by other industries as raw material.


Long Answer Questions

Q4. Classify industries on the basis of raw material used, their size and ownership with examples.
Ans: Industries are broadly classification into three types (i.e. On the basis of Raw Materials, On the basis of Size and On the basis of Ownership).
1. On the basis of Raw Materials: These types of industries are classified depending on the type of raw materials they use.
(a) Agro Based Industries: Use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. E.g. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products, etc.
(b) Mineral Based Industries: Primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. E.g. Iron & Steel, Cement, Machine, Tools, etc.
(c) Pastoral Based Industries: Use raw material's from animals like, Sheep, goat, etc. These industries use skin, bones, flesh, etc. E.g. Dairy product industries, Leather industries, etc.
(d) Marine Based Industries: Use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials. E.g. processed sea food, fish oil manufacturers, etc.
(e) Forest Based Industries: Use forest produce as raw materials. E.g. pulp & paper, furniture. Pharmaceuticals, etc.

2. On the basis of Size: These types of industries are classified depending on the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production.
(a) Large Scale Industries: In India, on an industry, if the capital invested is more than 1 crore, then it is called Large Scale Industry. E.g. Iron & Steel Industries, Automobile Industries, etc.
(b) Small Scale Industries: In India, on an industry, if the capital invested is less than 1 crore, then it is called Small Scale Industry. E.g. Silk weaving, Food processing industries, etc.
(c) Cottage or Household Industries: These are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans with the help of family members. E.g. Basket weaving, pottery, handicrafts, etc.

3. On the basis of Ownership: These types of industries are classified on the basis of ownership.
(a) Private Sector Industries: Owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. Bajaj Auto, Reliance, etc.
(b) Public Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the government. E.g. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. (BHEL), SAIL, etc.
(c) Joint Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. E.g. Indian Oil, Maruti Udyog Ltd., etc.
(d) Co-operative Sector Industries: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. E.g. IFFCO, Anand Milk Union Limited (AMUL) and Sudha Dairy, etc.
(e) Multinational Corporations: Setup in collaboration with foreign investors. Owned and managed by members of two or more countries. E.g. Coca Cola, Maruti Udyog Ltd., etc.

Q5. Explain the factors which influence the location of industries.
Ans: Factors that influence the location of any industry are:
(a) Physical Factors: Land, Water, Raw Material, etc.
(b) Human Factors: Capital, Power, Labour, Government Policies, Market, Technology, Transportation, Communication, etc.

Q6. Describe the growth and development of the cotton textile industry in India.
Ans: India has a glorious tradition of producing excellent quality cotton textiles. Before the British rule, Indian hand spun and hand woven cloth already had a wide market.
The Muslins of Dhaka, Chintzes of Masulipatnam, Calicos of Calicut and Gold-wrought cotton of Burhanpur, Surat and Vadodara were known worldwide for their quality and design. But the production of hand woven cotton textile was expensive and time consuming. Hence, traditional cotton textile industry could not face the competition from the new textile mills of the West, which produced cheap and good quality fabrics through mechanized industrial units.
The first successful mechanized textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854, followed by Ahmedabad in 1859.
The warm, moist climate, a port for importing machinery, availability of raw material and skilled labour resulted in rapid expansion of the industry in the region.
Initially this industry flourished in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat because of favourable humid climate. Today, Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Pondicherry and Panipat are some of the other important centres.

Q7. Write a short note on the information technology industry.
Ans. The information technology industry deals in the storage, processing and distribution of information through Radio, Television, Telephones, Cellular Phones, Computers, Laptops, etc.
Today, IT industry has become global and has become the fastest growing service industry in the world. IT industry is an emerging industry. Also, known as the Sunrise Industry.
Availability of resources, skilled workers, cost and infrastructure are the main factors responsible for the location of an IT industry.
The major hubs of the IT industry are the Silicon Valley and Bangaluru in India.



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