17 July, 2017

Class IX: Chapter 2 (Physical Features of India) Question and Answers

Q1. Explain the divisions of the Himalayas on the basis of regions from west to east.
Ans: On the basis of regions from west to east and the rivers flowing, the great Himalayas have been divided into four divisions:
(a) Punjab Himalayas: This part lies between the Indus and Sutlej. They are also known as Kashmir Himalaya and Himachal Himalaya.
(b) Kumaon Himalayas: This part lies between Sutlej and Kali rivers.
(c) Nepal Himalayas: This part lies between the Kali and Tista rivers.
(d) Assam Himalayas: This part lies between the Tista and Dihang rivers.

Q2. Write short notes on the following:
(a) The Indian Desert (b) The Central Highlands (c) The Island groups of India
Ans:
(a) The Indian Desert: The Indian desert lies towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills. This region gets scanty rainfall which is less than 150 mm in a year. Hence they climate is arid and vegetation is scanty. Luni is the only large river but some streams appear during rainy season. Crescent-shaped dunes (barchans) abound in this area.

(b) The Central Highlands: The Central Highlands lies to the north of the Narmada River. Central Highlands is broadly divided into two: The Malwa Plateau and the Chhotanagpur plateau. It covers the major portion of the Malwa plateau. The rivers in this region flow from southwest to northeast; which indicates the slope of this region. It is wider in the west and narrower in the east. Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand mark the eastward extension of this plateau.
The plateau further extends eastwards into the Chhotanagpur plateau; this area is very rich in minerals.

(c) The Island groups of India: The Lakshadweep Islands are in the Arabian Sea. Its area is 32 sq km. The administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep is at Kavaratti Island. This group of islands is rich in terms of biodiversity.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are bigger in size and has more number of islands. Its area is 8249 sq km. This group of islands can be divided into two groups. The Andaman is in the north and the Nicobar is in the south. These islands too have rich biodiversity.

Q3. What are tectonic plates? Name three types of stress build with the plates.
Ans: The crust of the earth is not in the form of a continuous plate rather in the form of broken pieces. These pieces of the earth's crust are called tectonic plates. Broadly, there are seven major plates: African Plate, Antarctic Plate, Eurasian Plate, Indo-Australian Plate, North American Plate, Pacific Plate and South American Plate.
Stress build with the plates leads to Folding, Faulting and Volcanic Activities.

Q4. Which part of India is called Purvachal? Mention few characteristics of Purvachal.
Ans: The Brahmaputra River marks the eastern boundary of the Himalayas. Beyond the Dihang gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply towards south and form the Eastern hills or The Purvachal.
Following are the characteristics of Purvachal:
(a) These hills run through the north eastern states of India.
(b) They are mostly composed of sandstones (i.e. Sedimentary rocks).
(c) These hills are covered with dense forest.
(d) These hills are composed of the Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Manipuri Hills and Mizo Hills.

Q5. Explain the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.
Ans: Three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south are:
(a) The Great or Inner Himalaya or Himadri:
• This is the northernmost range and is also known as 'Himadri'.
• This is the most continuous range.
• The average height of peaks in this range is 6,000 meters.
• All the prominent Himalayan peaks are in this range.
• The folds of the Great Himalayas are irregular in nature.
• Because of the lofty heights, the peaks of this range are perennially covered with snow.
• Famous glaciers like the Siachen Glacier, the Gangotri and Yamunotri, etc.

(b) The Lesser Himalaya or Himachal:
• This range lies towards the south of the Great Himalayas.
• The altitude of peaks in this range varies from 3,700 to 4,500 meter.
• Average width of this range is 50 km.
• The most important mountain range here is the Pir Panjal mountain range and it is the longest range. Dhaula Dhar and Mahabharat are also important ranges of lesser Himalayas.
• All great valleys like Kashmir Valley, Kangra Valley, Kullu Valley are present here.
• This region is also known as for its hill stations (for e.g. Kullu,-Manali, Kufri, Shimla, Mussoorie, Nanital, etc.).

(c) The Outer Himalayas or the Shiwaliks:
• The altitude varies between 900 and 1100 meters in this range.
• The width varies between 10 to 50 km.
• These ranges are composed of unconsolidated sediments brought down by the rivers.
• The longitudinal valleys lying between the Himachal and Shiwaliks are called 'Dun'. E.g. The dun of Dehra, it is the biggest with a length of 35 km and width of 25 km.

Q6. Distinguish between Western Coastal Plains and Eastern Coastal Plains.
Ans:

Q7. Distinguish between Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
Ans:

Q8. Explain the Northern Plains of India with its divisions on the basis of the relief features.
Ans: Based on the relief features; the northern plain can be divided into four regions, viz. Bhabar, Terai, Bhangar and Khadar.

(a) Bhabar: After descending from the mountains, the rivers deposit pebbles in a narrow belt. The width of this belt is about 8 to 16 kms. It lies parallel to the Shiwaliks. Bhabhar is the gently-sloping coarse alluvial zone below the Siwalik Hills (outermost foothills of Himalayas) where streams disappear into permeable sediments. The underground water level is deep in this region.

(b) Terai: The terai region lies towards south of the bhabar belt. In this region, the streams reappear and make a wet, swampy and marshy region. This region was full of forest and wildlife but after partition all this area was cleared and was converted into agricultural land for the settlement of the migrants.

(c) Bhangar: Bhangar is the largest part of the northern plain and is composed of the oldest alluvial soil. They lie above the flood plains. They resemble terraces. The soil of this region is locally known as kankar and is composed of calcareous deposits.

(d) Khadar: The floodplains formed by younger alluvium are called Khadar. The soil in this region is renewed every year and is highly fertile. This region is very suitable for intensive agricultural activities.

Q9. Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular Plateau.
Ans: The following compares and contrasts between the reliefs of the Himalayan region with that of the peninsular plateau:

Q10. Map Work (Locate and Label):
Mountain Ranges:
(A) Karakoram Range
(B) Zasker Range
(C) Shiwalik Range
(D) Aravali Range
(E) Vindhya Range
(F) Satpura Range
(G) Western Ghats
(H) Eastern Ghats

Mountain Peaks:
(I) K2
(J) Kanchan Junga
(K) Anai Mudi,

Plateau:
(L) Deccan Plateau
(M) Chotta Nagpur Plateau
(N) Malwa plateau

Coastal Plains:
(O) Konkan Coast
(P) Malabar Coast
(Q) Coromandal Coast
(R) Northern Circar Coast

Ans:

 

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17 July, 2017

Class IX: Chapter 2 - Physical Features of India

Objectives and Goals:

1. The Physical features of India.
2. Theory of Plate Tectonic.
3. Three types of plate boundaries (i.e. Convergent Boundary, Divergent Boundary and Transform Boundary).
4. The Continental Drift Theory.
5. Formation of India.
6. The major physiographic divisions of India (i.e. The Himalayan Mountains, The Northern Plains, The Peninsular Plateau, The Indian Desert, The Coastal Plains, and The Islands).
7. The great Himalayas, three parallel ranges in its longitudinal extent (i.e. The Great or Inner Himalayas or Himadri, The Lesser Himalaya or Himachal and The Shiwaliks).
8. Some of the highest peaks of Himalayas.
9. Division of Himalayan regions from west to east (i.e. Punjab Himalayas, Kumaon Himalayas, Nepal Himalayas and Assam Himalayas).
10. Eastern hills and mountains (i.e. Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Manipuri Hills and Mizo Hills).
11. The Northern Plains, three sections of Northern Plain (i.e. Punjab Plains, Ganga Plains and Brahmaputra Plains).
12. Division of northern plain on the basis of relief features; divided into four regions (i.e. Bhabar, Terai, Bhangar and Khadar).
13. The Peninsular Plateau, which is broadly divided into two regions (i.e. The Central Highlands and The Deccan Plateau).
14. Western and Eastern Ghats.
15. Indian Desert.
16. Coastal Plain of India (i.e. The Eastern and Western Coastal Plains).
17. Islands of India (i.e. Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman and Nicobar Islands).

 

Theory of Plate Tectonics:

  • The continental blocks or the plates are floating on mantle.
  • The Crust (upper part) of the earth has been formed out of seven major and some minor plates. Following are the seven major plates: -
  1. African Plate
  2. Antarctic Plate
  3. Eurasian Plate
  4. Indo-Australian Plate
  5. North American Plate
  6. Pacific Plate
  7. South American Plate

They move with the change or release of pressure and temperature inside the earth.

Folding: Caused by compression, when blocks of landforms comes closer to each other, they form wrinkles or folds on the earth's surface. E.g. the young fold mountains "Himalayas".

Faulting: The structure of rocks cracks or breaks along the weaker areas due to tension, this is called faulting. This may cause upliftment and subsidence of land and can form Block Mountains. E.g. Vindhyas and Satpura hills.
When a part of land subsides between two faults, it forms Rift Valley. Narmada & Tapti Rivers flow through the rift valley.

Volcanic Activities: Natural openings in the earth's crust through which molten materials, rocks, ashes, gases, etc are thrown out are called 'Volcanoes'.

 

Theory of Plate Tectonics:
Plate movements are of three types:
1. Convergent Boundary: In this case, the two adjacent tectonic plates move towards each other.
2. Divergent Boundary: In this case, the two adjacent plates move away from each other.
3. Transform Boundary: In this case, the two adjacent plates move along their borders.

 

Continental Drift Theory:

  • According to the theory of Continental Drift, the world was made up of a single continent through most of geologic time. That continent eventually separated and drifted apart, forming into the seven continents we have today. The first comprehensive theory of continental drift was suggested by the German meteorologist Alfred Wegener in 1912.
  • Million of year also there was a single continent named "Pangaea". Pangaea broke into pieces due to internal forces and is drifting away from each other since last almost 250 million years.
  • Two landmasses – "Laurasia in North" and "Gondwanaland in South"
  • Both the landmasses were separated by a shallow sea called "Tethys Sea".
  • Size of Tethys sea kept on decreasing due to movement of landmasses towards each other, thus, resulting in the formation of the young fold mountains "Himalayas".

 

Formation of India

  • The Indian Peninsula drifted towards the north and finally collided with the much larger Eurasian Plate.
  • As a result of this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosynclines (known as Tethys) got folded and formed the mountain systems of the West Asia and Himalaya
  • Due to the uplift of the Himalayas in the Tethys Sea, the northern part of the Indian Peninsula got subsided and formed a large basin. That basin was filled with sediments from the rivers which came from the mountains in the north and from the peninsula in the south.
  • Thus, the northern plains of India came into existence. These plains are made up of alluvial deposits.
  • The peninsular plateau is known as the old topography, whereas the Himalayas and the Northern plains are considered as new topography.
  • The peninsular plateau is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks with gently rising hills and wide valleys.

 

 

INDIA
The major physiographic divisions of India: -
1. The Himalayan Mountains
2. The Northern Plains
3. The Peninsular Plateau
4. The Indian Desert
5. The Coastal Plains
6. The Islands

 

1. THE HIMALAYAN MOUNTAINS

  • The name "Himalaya" means "the abode or house of snow" in Sanskrit (i.e. hima "snow", and ālaya "abode or house".
  • The Himalaya mountain range is the highest on earth and is often referred to as the "roof of the world".
  • These mountain ranges run in a west-east direction from the Indus to the Brahmaputra.
  • The Himalayas represent the loftiest and one of the most rugged mountain barriers in the world.
  • The great Himalayas are also known as the young fold mountains.
  • The Himalayas run along the northern border of India.
  • The Himalayas form an arc which is about 2,400 km long.
  • The width varies from 400 km in Kashmir to 150 km in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The altitudinal variations are greater in the eastern part than in the western part.
  • There are three parallel ranges in its longitudinal extent (i.e. The Great or Inner Himalayas or Himadri, The Lesser Himalaya or Himachal and The Shiwaliks).

 

THE GREAT OR INNER HIMALAYAS OR HIMADRI:

  • This is the northernmost range and is also known as 'Himadri'.
  • This is the most continuous range.
  • It contains the loftiest peaks.
  • The average height of peaks in this range is 6,000 meters.
  • All the prominent Himalayan peaks are in this range.
  • The folds of the Great Himalayas are irregular in nature.
  • The core of this part is composed of granite.
  • Because of the lofty heights, the peaks of this range are perennially covered with snow.
  • Famous glaciers like the Siachen Glacier, the Gangotri and Yamunotri, etc.

Some of the highest peaks of the Himalayas are: -

 

THE LESSER HIMALAYA OR HIMACHAL:

  • This range lies towards the south of the Great Himalayas.
  • The altitude of peaks in this range varies from 3,700 to 4,500 meter.
  • Average width of this range is 50 km.
  • This range is mainly composed of highly compressed and altered rocks.
  • The most important mountain range here is the Pir Panjal mountain range and it is the longest range.
  • Dhaula Dhar and Mahabharat mountain ranges are also important ranges of lesser himalayas.
  • All great valleys like Kashmir Valley, Kangra Valley, Kullu Valley are present here.
  • This region is also known as for its hill stations (for e.g. Kullu,-Manali, Kufri, Shimla, Mussoorie, Nanital, etc.).

 

THE SHIWALIKS:

  • The outermost range of the Himalayas is known as Shiwaliks, also known as Manak Parbat in ancient times.
  • The altitude varies between 900 and 1100 meters in this range.
  • The width varies between 10 to 50 km.
  • These ranges are composed of unconsolidated sediments brought down by the rivers.
  • The longitudinal valleys lying between the Himachal and Shiwaliks are called 'Dun'.
  • Unlike typical river valleys, duns have a structural origin and are covered with boulders and gravel originating from the erosion of the Himalayas and the Shiwalik uplands. Major duns found in the region are Dehra, Kothri, Chaukham, Patli and Kota. The dun of Dehra is the biggest with a length of 35 km and width of 25 km.

 

HIMALAYAN REGIONS FROM WEST TO EAST:

  • Himalayas have also been divided on the basis of regions from west to east. The division has been done on the basis of the rivers flowing in the himalayan regions. Following is the division: -
  • Punjab Himalayas: This part lies between the Indus and Sutlej. They are also known as Kashmir Himalaya and Himachal Himalaya.
  • Kumaon Himalayas: This part lies between Sutlej and Kali rivers.
  • Nepal Himalayas: This part lies between the Kali and Tista rivers.
  • Assam Himalayas: This part lies between the Tista and Dihang rivers.
  • Some regional names of himalayas are: - Sagarmatha Himal , Annapurna Himal , Ganesh Himal, Langtang Himal, Manaslu Himal , Rolwaling Himal, Jugal Himal, Gauri Sankar Himal, Kanjirowa Himal, Khumbu Himal, Dhaulagiri Himal, Purvachal, etc.

 

EASTERN HILLS AND MOUNTAINS:

  • The Brahmaputra marks the eastern border of the Himalayas.
  • Beyond the Dihang gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply towards south and form the Eastern hills or Purvachal.
  • These hills run through the north eastern states of India.
  • They are mostly composed of sandstones (i.e. Sedimentary rocks).
  • These hills are covered with dense forest.
  • These hills are composed of the Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Manipuri Hills and Mizo Hills.

 

 

2.THE NORTHERN PLAIN OF INDIA:

  • The northern plain of India is formed by three river systems, i.e. the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra; along with their tributaries.
  • This plain is composed of alluvial soil which has been deposited over millions of years.
  • The total area of the northern plain is about 7 lakh square kilometer.
  • It is about 2400 km long.
  • Width is about 240 to 320 km .
  • Northern plains are most densely populated areas of the country.
  • Here we find alluvial soil, thus making the plain very fertile and agriculturally very productive.
  • Because of the three river systems, i.e. the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra; along with their tributaries, availability of water is there in abundance through the year.
  • The rivers in their lower course split into numerous channels or streams due to the deposition of silt. These channels or streams are known as Distributaries.
  • The northern plain is divided into three sections, i.e. the Punjab Plain, the Ganga Plain and the Brahmaputra Plain.

 

Punjab Plains:

  • The Punjab plains form the western part of the northern plain.
  • This is formed by the Indus and its tributaries; like Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej.
  • A major portion of this plains is in Pakistan.
  • Doabs are found in Punjab plains.
  • Doab (do, "two" + ab, "water" or "river"). It as "a region or land lying between and reaching to the meeting of the two rivers.

 

Ganga Plains:

  • This plain extends between Ghaggar and Tista rivers.
  • The northern states, Haryana, Delhi, UP, Bihar, part of Jharkhand and West Bengal in the east lie in the Ganga plains.

 

Brahmaputra Plains:

  • This plain forms the eastern part of the northern plain and lies in Assam.

Based on the relief features; the northern plain can be divided into four regions, viz. Bhabar, Terai, Bhangar and Khadar.

 1. Bhabar:

  • After descending from the mountains, the rivers deposit pebbles in a narrow belt.
  • The width of this belt is about 8 to 16 kms.
  • It lies parallel to the Shiwaliks.
  • Bhabhar is the gently-sloping coarse alluvial zone below the Siwalik Hills (outermost foothills of Himalayas) where streams disappear into permeable sediments. The underground water level is deep in this region.

 2. Terai:

  • The terai region lies towards south of the bhabar belt.
  • In this region, the streams reappear and make a wet, swampy and marshy region.
  • This region was full of forest and wildlife but after partition all this area was cleared and was converted into agricultural land for the settlement of the migrants.

 3. Bhangar:

  • Bhangar is the largest part of the northern plain and is composed of the oldest alluvial soil.
  • They lie above the flood plains. They resemble terraces.
  • The soil of this region is locally known as kankar and is composed of calcareous deposits.

 4. Khadar:

  • The floodplains formed by younger alluvium are called Khadar.
  • The soil in this region is renewed every year and is highly fertile.
  • This region is very suitable for intensive agricultural activities.

 

3.THE PENINSULAR PLATEAU

  • The peninsular plateau is a tableland which contains igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  • It is composed of the oldest rocks because it was formed from the drifted part of the Gondwana land.
  • Broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills are the characteristic features of this plateau.
  • The plateau can be broadly divided into two regions, i.e. the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.
  • One of the important features of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area which is known as the Deccan Trap.
  • This black soil originated from the volcanic eruption. Thus, it has igneous rocks.

 

The Central Highlands:

  • The Central Highlands lies to the north of the Narmada river.
  • It covers the major portion of the Malwa plateau.
  • Location:
  • North of Narmada river.
  • Vindhya ranges in the South.
  • Aravalis in the North West.
  • Covers Malwa plateau, Bundelkhand , Baghelkhand and Chhotanagpur plateau.
  • The rivers in this region flow from southwest to northeast (i.e. Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken, Son, etc.); which indicates the slope of this region.
  • It is wider in the west and narrower in the east.
  • Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand mark the eastward extension of this plateau.
  • The plateau further extends eastwards into the Chhotanagpur plateau.

 

The Deccan Plateau:

  • The Deccan Plateau lies to the south of the Naramada river.
  • It is triangular in shape.
  • The slope of the Deccan Plateau is from west to east.
  • Most of the rivers flow from west to east.
  • Location:
  • The Satpura range makes its northern part.
  • The Mahadev, Kaimur Hills and Maikal range make its eastern part.
  • It extends into the north east which encompasses Meghalaya, Karbi-Anglong Plateau and North Cachar Hills.
  • Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills are the prominent ranges; starting from west to east.

 

Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats:

  • Western Ghats stretch from the Tapi River to Kanayakumari. But The Eastern Ghats stretch from Mahanadi Valley to the Nilgiris in the south.
  • Western Ghat's average width is 50 to 80 km. But Eastern Ghat's width varying from 100 to 200 km.
  • Western Ghats is source of many large rivers But no big river originates from the Eastern Ghats.
  • Western Ghats are continuous and can be crossed through passes only. But Eastern Ghats has been divided into several parts by large rivers.
  • Western Ghats average elevation is 900 to 1,600 meters But the average elevation of Eastern Ghats is about 600 metres above sea level.
  • Highest Peak of Western Ghats: Anai Mudi (2695 meters).
  • Highest Peak of Eastern Ghats: Mahendragiri (1501 meters).
  • Western ghats receives orographic type of rainfallal. South-west monsoons coming from the Arabian Sea and causes heavy rainfall. Eastern Ghats is almost parallel to the monsoons coming from the Bay of Bengal and does not cause much rainfall.

 

4.THE INDIAN DESERT:

  • The Indian desert is also known as the Thar Desert.
  • The Indian desert lies towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills.
  • This region gets very less rainfall which is less than 150 mm in a year.
  • The climate is dry and vegetation is found is very less.
  • Luni is the only large river but some streams appear during rainy season.
  • Kindly note: The Luni is a river of western Rajasthan. It originates in the Pushkar valley of the Aravalli Range, near Ajmer and ends in the marshy lands of Ran of Kutch in Gujarat.
  • Crescent-shaped dunes (barchans) are found in this area.

 

5.THE COASTAL PLAINS OF INDIA:

  • The Western Coastal Plains is a thin strip of coastal plain with a width of 50 kms between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats.
  • It is divided into three sections. The Konkan; (Mumbai – Goa) in the north. The Kannada Plain makes the central part and the Malabar coast stretches in the south.
  • The Eastern Coastal Plains is a strip of coastal plain with a width of 100 - 130 kms between the Bay of Bengal and the Eastern Ghats
  • It is divided into two parts. The northern part is called Northern Circar. The southern part is called the Coromandel Coast.
  • Extensive deltas are formed by large rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.
  • Chilika lake is an important feature along the eastern coast. It is the largest salt water lake in India.

 

6.THE ISLANDS OF INDIA:

India has two group of islands (i.e. Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea and Andaman & Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal).

  • The Lakshadweep Islands covers an area of 32 sq kms. It got its name in the year 1973.
  • The administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep is at Kavaratti Island.
  • This group of islands is composed of small coral islands.
  • This group of islands is rich in terms of biodiversity (flora & fauna).
  • The Andaman & Nicobar Islands are located in the Bay of Bengal.
  • These islands are bigger in size and has more number of islands.
  • This group of islands can be divided into two groups. The Andaman is in the north and the Nicobar is in the south.
  • These islands are located close to equator and thus, experience equatorial type of climate and also have thick forest cover.
  • These islands too have rich biodiversity (flora & fauna).

 

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04 May, 2017

Class IX: Chapter 1 (India: Size and Location) Extra Questions For Practice

Q1. In which hemisphere India is located?

Q2. How many States and Union Territories are there in India?

Q3. Name the group of islands lying in the Arabian Sea & the Bay of Bengal.

Q4. Name the countries which are larger than India.

Q5. What is the size of India?

Q6. What is the location of India?

Q7. Name the imaginary line dividing the country into almost two equal parts and at what degree?

Q8. Name the southernmost point of India that got submerged under sea during Tsunami and in which year?

Q9. India is a vast country, what is the distance covered in kilometers from North to South and West to East of the Indian mainland?

Q10. What is the Land boundary of India and also, the Coastline boundary including the Indian mainland and the Islands?

Q11. What are Latitudes and Longitudes?

Q12. What are the capitals of the Lakshadweep Islands and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands?

Q13. Define IST.

Q14. What is the importance of 82o30' East longitude?

 

 

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18 April, 2017

Class IX: Chapter 1 (India - Size and Location) Question & Answers

Q1. What is the location of India?
Ans: The mainland stretches from Latitude 8o4' North to 37o6' North and from Longitude 68o7' East to 97o25' East. The southernmost point in the Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Islands) is the Indira Point (6o45' North), while Kanya-Kumari, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland.

Q2. What is the size of India?
Ans: India is the seventh largest country in the world covering an area of 3.28 million square kilometers. India covers 2.4 % of the total geographical area of the world.

Q3. Name the states through which the Tropic of Cancer passes.
Ans: Tropic of Cancer passes through: Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.

Q4. Name the countries which are larger than India.
Ans: Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil and Australia are the countries larger than India.

Q5. Which countries together make the Indian subcontinent?
Ans: India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Nepal and Bhutan are the countries that together make the Indian subcontinent.

Q6. Name all the neighboring countries of India.
Ans: In the northwest, India shares its boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan. In the north, India shares its boundaries with China, Nepal and Bhutan. In the east, India shares its boundaries with Bangladesh and Myanmar. In the south, Maldives and Sri Lanka are our neighboring countries. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by Palk Strait.

Q7. Distinguish between Latitudes and Longitudes.
Ans:

Q8. The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why?
Ans: The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance because of the following reasons:
(a) India is centrally located on the world map.
(b) India has longest coastline on the Indian Ocean.
(c) It is surrounded by three water bodies, in the south by the Indian Ocean, in the east by the Bay of Bengal and in the west by the Arabian Sea.
(d) India is strategically located at the centre of the trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the European countries in the west and the countries of East Asia. Thus, India could establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast. Moreover, it could establish close contact with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast.
(e) Ocean sea routes, i.e., Suez Canal route, Cape of Good Hope route, pass through the Indian Ocean.
(f) India has been able to establish close cultural and commercial contacts with countries of west and east due to its central location.

Q9. Why has 82o30' E selected as standard meridian of India?
Ans:
(a) The longitudinal extent of India is 30o.
(b) The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
(c) It takes 4 minutes for the sun to move across 1 longitude. Thus, the eastern most point of India would be 2 hours ahead of the western most point (30 x 4 = 120 minutes), in accordance with the local time.
(d) This difference in time might create confusion in air and rail timings and so many other things across the two states. To avoid this confusion a longitude passing through the midpoint of 68o7' East (western most longitude) and 97o25' East (eastern most longitude) is taken as the standard prime meridian of India (i.e. 82o30').
(e) The time at the standard meridian 82o30' which passes through Mirzapur in UP is taken as the standard time of India, followed all over the country and hence the watches show the same time in both the states (i.e. Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat).

Q10. Map Work
1. The island groups of India lying in the Arabian Sea.
2. The island groups of India lying in the Bay of Bengal.
3. The states through which the Tropic of Cancer passes.
4. The northernmost latitude and the southernmost latitude of the Indian mainland in degrees.
5. The southernmost latitude of the Indian Territory in degrees and the place.
6. The easternmost and the westernmost longitudes in degrees.
7. The place situated on the three seas.
8. The strait separating Sri Lanka and India.
9. Standard Meridian of India in degrees.

Ans:

 

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18 April, 2017

Class IX: Chapter 1 - India - Size and Location

 

                  The country lies wholly in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres

 

  

                              India is the seventh largest country in the world

 

Latitudes and Longitudes:

   

Latitude:  It is an angular distance, North or South from the equator, of a point on the earth's surface. The equator is 0and points can therefore be measured in degrees south and Northof this line.

Longitude:  It is an angular distance of a point measured on the earth's surface to the East or West of a central reference point. The reference point in this case is the plane created by a meridian going through Greenwich in England. It is 0o meridian.

 

 

Location & Size of India:

  • India lies in the Northern and Eastern hemisphere.
  • India is the seventh largest country in the world covering an area of 3.28 million square kilometers.
  • India covers 2.4 % of the total geographical area of the world.
  • The mainland stretches from Latitude 8o4' North to 37o6' North and from Longitude 68o7' East to 97o25' East.
  • The latitudinal & longitudinal extent of the country is almost same in degrees i.e. about 30o.
  • The southernmost point in the Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Islands) is the Indira Point (6o45' North), while Kanya-kumari, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland.
  • Tropic of Cancer crosses the country at 23o30' North dividing the country into almost two equal parts.
  • The country is of a vast size and measures about 3,214 kilometers from North to South and about 2,933 kilometers from West to East.
  • Coastline: 7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
  • The 82o30' East longitude is taken as Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India (Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh).
  • Indian Standard Time: GMT + 05:30.
  • Strait: A narrow stretch of sea linking two large seas, e.g. Palk Strait, English Channel, etc.
  • India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh are the countries forming the Indian sub-continent.

 

Q. Why 82o30' East longitude (Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India?
Ans:

  • The longitudinal extent of India is 30o.
  • The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
  • It takes 4 minutes for the sun to move across 1 longitude. Thus, the eastern most point of India would be 2 hours ahead of the western most point (30 x 4 = 120 minutes), in accordance with the local time.
  • This difference in time might create confusion in air and rail timings and so many other things across the two states. To avoid this confusion a longitude passing through the midpoint of 68o 7' East (western most longitude) and 97o 25' East (eastern most longitude) is taken as the standard prime meridian of India (i.e. 82o30').
  • The time at the standard meridian 82o30' which passes through Mirzapur in UP is taken as the standard time of India, followed all over the country.

 

 

India and the World:

  • India is centrally located between the East and the West Asia.
  • India is located at the centre of the trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the European countries in the west and the countries of East Asia.
  • India has established close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast. Also, contact with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast.
  • India has longest coastline on the Indian Ocean.
  • India's contact with the world through land routes is much older than the sea routes.
  • Through these routes people around the world have come to know about India's culture and traditions.

 

India's Neighbours:

  • India has 29 states and 7 union territories.
  • In the northwest, India shares its boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  • In the north, India shares its boundaries with China, Nepal and Bhutan.
  • In the east, India shares its boundaries with Bangladesh and Myanmar.
  • In the south, India shares its boundaries with Maldives and Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by Palk Strait.

 

   


   

 

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10 March, 2017

Class IX: SA - II (Geography) Extra Question for Practice

Question and Answers (03 marks each)

Q1. Why the monsoon is considered a unifying bond?
Q2. Define monsoons. What do you understand by"Burst" and "break" of monsoon?
Q3. Why does the rainfall decrease from the east to the west in Northern India?
Q4. Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?
Q5. What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples.
Q6. Distinguish between a national park and a wildlife sanctuary.
Q7. What are the different types of vegetations found in India?
Q8. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?
Q9. What is an 'ecosystem'? How do human beings influence the ecology of a region?
Q10. Give an account of the distribution of tropical deciduous forests in India. Distinguish between moist deciduous forests and dry deciduous forests.
Q11. Write about any three medicinal plants found in India.
Q12. Define natural vegetation. What are the factors responsible for the distribution of natural vegetation and wildlife in India?
Q13. Define: (a) Adolescence (b) Census (c) Natural Growth Rate
Q14. How does pull and push factors leads to change in population?
Q15. Write a note on characteristics of population.
Q16. Define the structure of population.
Q17. What is Sex ratio? Explain the reasons behind low sex ratio in India.
Q18. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?
Q19. Distinguish between population growth and population change.

 

OTBA (05 marks each)

Q20. Monsoon is a gamble in India. What innovative methods are required to deal with the deficient methods?
Q21. What is the positive impact of a good monsoon on agriculture in India and Indian economy?
Q22. What are the benefits of building dams to the mankind?
Q23. What is the impact of monsoon's on agriculture in India?
Q24. Monsoons play a very important role in defining and deciding the Indian economy, highlight the main characteristics of monsoon in India.
Q25. What was the need of water express and how it played an important role?
Q26. Explain the condition of farmers during the drought situation in Maharashtra.
Q27. What are the various steps taken by the Indian government to minimize the drought situation in Maharashtra?
Q28. Every year state of Maharashtra faces drought situation. What are the different cropping patterns adopted by the farmers?
Q29. What can be the different solutions to overcome the problem of drought in India?
Q30. India is a country of beautiful landscapes, mountains, rivers, etc. but on the other hand every year some places face drought situation. Explain what leads to drought in some parts of the Indian subcontinent?

 

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