Q1. What are resources? What are their two main types?
Ans: Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as "Resource".
Resources are majorly classifies into two main types:
(a) Natural Resources: These are the free gifts of nature. For e.g. Air, Water, Soil, Sunlight, Minerals, Flora & Fauna, etc.
(b) Man Made Resources: Resources created by human beings are called Man-Made Resources. Buildings, Roads, Machines, etc

Q2. Define resources classified on the basis of Ownership of Resources.
Ans: On the basis of ownership resources are classifies into four types:
(a) Individual Resource: Resources which are owned by an individual. E.g. plot, car, house, etc.
(b) Community Resource: Resources which belongs to a community of people. E.g. parks, community halls, picnic spots, etc.
(c) National Resource: Resources which belongs to a nation. These resources are found within the political boundaries and territorial waters (i.e. ocean water upto 12 nautical miles (22.2 kms) from the coast of a country. E.g. rivers, forests, minerals, etc.
The country has legal powers to acquire private property to facilitate public.
(d) International Resource: Resources which are found beyond the territorial boundaries of a country. These resources are managed by the international institutes. No single country can use these resources without the permission of the international authorities. E.g. Minerals, fisheries, etc.

Q3. Define resources classified on the basis of Development of Resources.
Ans: On the basis of development resources are classifies into four types:
(a) Actual or Developed Resource: Resources whose existence has been proved and whose quality, quantity and location has been determined for utilization with the available technology.
(b) Potential Resource: Resources which are found in a region but have not been utilized, might be because of the lack of technology. They can be used in future. E.g. Solar and Wind are potential resource. Rajasthan and Gujarat have great potential for the development of these two resources.
(c) Reserves: Resources which can be put into use with the help of the existing technology but their use has not been started. They can be used in future. E.g. more rivers can be used for generating electricity.
(d) Stocks: Reserves which have the potential to satisfy the human needs but we don't have the technology to access it.

Q4. Write few points highlighting Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992.
Ans: Following are few points highlighting Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992:
(a) In June 1992, more than 100 heads of states met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first International Earth Summit.
(b) The Summit was organized for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development.
(c) The assembled leaders signed the Declaration on Global Climatic Change and Biological Diversity.
(d) The Rio Convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st century.

Q5. What are the five major factors responsible for the formation of Soil?
Ans: Following are the five major factors responsible for the formation of Soil:
(a) Relief: Altitude and slope determines the accumulation of soil.
(b) Parent Rock: It determines, colour, texture, chemical properties, mineral contents, etc.
(c) Climate: Rainfall and temperature influence rate of humus and weathering.
(d) Time: It determines thickness of soil profile.
(e) Vegetation & Other Forms of Life: Microorganisms & vegetation affect the rate of humus formation.

Q6. What do you mean by resource planning? What are its different stages?
Ans: Resource planning is the judicious use of resources. Following are the three different stages for the resource planning:
(a) Identification of resources across the country.
(b) Proper planning structure with appropriate technology, skill and institutions.
(c) Matching the resource development plans with overall development plans.

Q7. Name the different types of soils found in India. Give three main features of alluvial soil.
Ans: Soils are classified on the basis of colour, texture, fertility, mineral content, etc. Broadly, soil is classified into six types: Alluvial Soil, Black Soil, Red & Yellow Soil, Laterite Soil, Arid Soil and Forest Soil.
Alluvial soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast. Three main features of alluvial soil are:
(a) Alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay and is the most fertile soil.
(b) Alluvial soil has adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which is ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat, etc.
(c) According to their age alluvial soil can be classified into two: Old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar).

Q8. Mention atleast five steps that can be taken to control soil erosion.
Ans: Following steps can be taken to control soil erosion:
(a) Mulching: Bare ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw. It helps to retail soil moisture.
(b) Contour Ploughing: Ploughing along contours can decrease the flow of water down the slopes.
(c) Terrace Farming: Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terrace. Terrace farming restricts erosion.
(d) Shelter Belts: Planting lines of trees to create shelter which will break the force of the wind.
(e) Strip Cropping: Strips of grass are grown between the crops. This breaks the force of wind.
(f) Rock Dam: Rocks are piled to slow the speed of wind.
(g) Afforestation, Crop Rotation, Control over Deforestation and Overgrazing, etc.

Q9. Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
Ans: India has total 3.28 million square kilometer. According to the land used data records are available only for about 93% of land of total geographical area. Of the total about 46% of land is used as net sown area, 22% of is forest cover, 5% cultivable land, 8% fallow land, 4% is covered by pastures and 1% is covered by tree crops. The pattern of net sown area varies from state to state. As per National Forest Policy (1952), the forest should be 33% of total geographical area, which is essential to maintain ecological balance but in India the forest cover is only 22%.
Large scale of development, industrialization and urbanization as well as agricultural expansion has widely reduced the forest cover in various parts of the country. Though afforestation and other government policies have lead to a marginal increase in the forest cover area in the country.

Q10. How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
Ans: Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development. Technical and economic development always leads to more consumption of all types of resources (i.e. natural and man-made) because of the following reasons:
(a) Technological progress makes available the knowledge to bring resources under use.
(b) With economic progress, more industries will be setup. With growth in industrialization will lead to increasing demand for all the types of resources (i.e. land, labour, capital, etc.).
(c) With technological and economic development income level of the people will increase due to which demands will increase, which will lead to more services and more consumption of resources.