Very Short Answer Questions

Q1. What do you mean by natural vegetations?
Ans: Plants which grow naturally without any human interference, covering a large area is known as natural vegetation.

Q2. Name the factors on which growth of vegetation depends.
Ans: Rainfall, Temperature, Relief, Soil & its fertility, height above sea level, Sunshine, Drainage, etc.

Q3. Why are the trees in Evergreen forests remain green all round the year?
Ans: In the Evergreen forests there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. Thus, these forests remain green all round the year.

Q4. What makes Camel an essential animal for the desert dwellers?
Ans: Camel is the most important animal of the deserts also known as the Ship of the desert. Camels have special body features which help them to survive in extreme conditions. Camels can survive for many days without water.

Q5. Why are several plants, animals and birds becoming endangered species?
Ans: Human activities like deforestation, agriculture, mining, hunting, industrialization, modernization, etc. have destroyed several ecosystems to meet their demands, making several plants, animals and birds becoming endangered species.


Short Answer Questions

Q6. Distinguish between (i) Evergreen and Deciduous Forests (ii) Tropical and Temperate Grasslands
(i) Evergreen and Deciduous Forests

(ii) Tropical and Temperate Grasslands

Q7. Why do softwood trees have great commercial value?
Ans. Softwood trees have great commercial value because the wood is used for manufacturing paper and newsprint. The wood is also used for making furniture, matchstick, plywood and sports goods. Infact, 80% of the world timber comes from softwood trees.

Q8. How do shrubs and some trees survive in hot deserts?
Ans. Shrubs and trees found in the hot deserts have some special characteristics. Vegetation cover includes thorny bushes, cacti and few short trees. These have long roots, thick stems, waxy leaves and thorns which help the vegetation to survive in such harsh climatic conditions.

Q9. Why is there very limited vegetation in the Ladakh region?
Ans. Ladakh region is like a cold desert, there is snow cover through the year. The extremely cold conditions do not allow the growth of vegetation on a large scale. Thus, we find very limited vegetation in these regions.


Long Answer Questions

Q10. Describe the main characteristics of tropical rain forests.
Ans. Characteristics of the tropical rain forests are as follows:
(a) These regions are hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year.
(b) As there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are called evergreen.
(c) Maximum varieties of trees are found. Trees are tall with large trunks.
(d) The thick canopies of the closely spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate inside the forest even in the day time. Thus, grass is not found in these forests.
(e) Hardwood trees like rosewood, teak, sal, ebony, and mahogany are the common trees found here.
(f) Here the population found is very less. Due to dense forests commercial exploitation of these forests has not be possible, making them economically backward.
(g) Large variety and most colourful animals are found here.
(h) Monkey, Ape, Birds, Hippopotamus, snake, python, Frog, Crocodile, etc. Anaconda, world's largest snake is also found in these areas.

Q11. Where are Mediterranean forests located? Highlight the main characteristics of the trees found here.
Ans. Mediterranean forests are found on the western margins of continents in the warm temperate regions, in areas around Mediterranean Sea, Central Chile, South-West USA, Australia, Africa.
Some of the main characteristics of the trees found here are:
(a) Mediterranean trees adapt themselves to dry summers with the help of their thick barks and wax coated leaves which help them reduce transpiration. Also, here the plants have long tap roots to reach underground water, called "Xerophytic Plants".
(b) Mediterranean regions are known as 'Orchards of the world' for their fruit cultivation.
(c) Citrus fruits such as oranges, figs, olives and grapes are commonly cultivated here because people have removed the natural vegetation in order to cultivate what they want to.

Q12. Why do the trees in the Coniferous forests have conical shape?
Ans. Chir, pine, cedar, etc. are the important variety of trees found in these forests. These trees are tall, straight and conical shaped with needle shaped leaves. The conical shapes of these trees are best suited to the climatic conditions as it allows the snow to slide down the leaves and branches of these trees.