Q1. What is a mineral?
Ans: A homogenous, naturally occurring substance with definable internal structure is called mineral.
Q2. What are the properties of minerals?
Ans: Following are the properties of minerals:
(a) Minerals are unevenly distributed throughout the world.
(b) Minerals take millions of year to form and are present in impure form.
(c) Minerals are non-renewable 'exhaustible' resources.
Q3. Mention the varieties of coal found in India.
Ans: Following are the different varieties of coal found in India:
(a) Anthracite: This is the highest quality hard coal.
(b) Bituminous: Coal which was formed because of increased temperature and was buried very deep is called bituminous coal. This is the most popular coal for commercial use. High grade bituminous coal is ideal for use in metallurgy.
(c) Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal. It is soft and has high moisture content. Neyveli in Tamil Nadu has the main reserves of lignite coal. This type of coal is used for electricity generation.
Q4. Write a note on Bauxite an ore to Aluminum.
Ans: (a) Bauxite is clay like substance, out of which aluminum is obtained.
(b) Amarkantak Plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni are the main areas of bauxite deposits.
(c) In 2009-10 Orissa was the largest producer of bauxite in India with 34.97%.
(d) Panchpatmali in Koraput district is the most important centre of bauxite deposit in Orissa.
(e) Aluminum is incredibly popular because it is Lightweight, Strong, Durable, Ductile, Malleable, etc.
(f) Aluminum is used in: Automobiles, Aircraft, Spacecraft, Packaging (Cans, Foil, frame, etc). Food and beverage containers, etc.
Q5. Write a note on Geo Thermal Energy.
Ans: Geo thermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth. Geothermal energy exists because; the Earth grows more and more hot with increasing depth. Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depths. Groundwater in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot. It is so hot that when it rises to the earth's surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity.
There are several hundred hot springs in India, which could be used to generate electricity. Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy. One is located in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga Valley, Ladakh.
Q6. Differentiate between Hydro Electricity and Thermal Electricity.
Q7. Minerals are essential part of our life, it is important to know about the occurrence of minerals. Mention different modes where minerals occur?
Ans: Minerals are usually found in ores. Minerals generally occur in the following forms:
(a) In Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks: The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger occurrences are called lodes. They are usually formed when minerals in liquid/molten and gaseous forms are forced upwards through cavities towards the earth's surface. Examples: tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc.
(b) In Sedimentary Rocks: In these rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers. Coal, iron ore, gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt are the minerals found in sedimentary rocks.
(c) By Decomposition of Surface Rocks: Decomposition of surface rocks and removal of soluble constituents leaves a residual mass of weathered material which contains ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.
(d) As Alluvial Deposits: These minerals are found in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called placer deposits. They generally contain those minerals which are not corroded by water. Examples; gold, silver, tin, platinum, etc.
(e) In Ocean Water: Most of the minerals in ocean water are too widely diffused to be of economic importance. But common salt, magnesium and bromine are mainly derived from ocean waters.
Q8. Describe the distribution of iron ore in India.
Ans: Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. The major iron ore belts in India are:
(a) Orissa Jharkhand Belt: Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa have high grade hematite ore. Additionally, hematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.
(b) Durg Bastar Chandrapur Belt: This belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. The Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh have very high grade hematite ore. This hilly range has 14 deposits of super high grade hematite ore. Iron from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakapatnam port.
(c) Bellary Chitradurga Chikmaglur Tumkur Belt: This belt lies in Karnataka. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats are a 100 percent export unit. The ore from these mines is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.
(d) Maharashtra Goa Belt: This belt includes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. The ores in these mines are not of very high quality. They are exported through Marmagao port.
Q9. Differentiate between Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
Q10. Draw a flow chart to explain the classification of minerals.
Q11. On the map of India locate the following:
(A) Iron Ore Mines: Mayurbhanj
(B) Iron Ore Mines: Kudremukh
(C) Bauxite Deposits: The Amarkantak Plateau
(D) Bauxite Deposits: Orissa: Panchpatmali Deposits In Koraput
(E) Mica Mines: Ajmer
(F) Mica Mines: Gaya
(G) Coal Mines: Bokaro
(H) Coal Mines: Neyvali
(I) Oil Fields: Digboi
(J) Oil Fields: Mumbai High
(K) Thermal Power Plant: Ramagundam
(L) Thermal Power Plant: Tuticorin
(M) Nuclear Power Plant: Rawat Bhata
(N) Nuclear Power Plant: Kalpakkam
Q1. How did India's Green Revolution benefit farmers?
Ans: Green Revolution was a period when the productivity of global agriculture increased drastically as a result of new advances. During this time period, new chemical fertilizers and synthetic herbicides and pesticides were created. The chemical fertilizers made it possible to supply crops with extra nutrients and, therefore, increase yield. The newly developed synthetic herbicides and pesticides controlled weeds, deterred or kill insects, and prevented diseases, which also resulted in higher productivity.
Benefits of Green Revolution
As a result of the Green Revolution and the introduction of chemical fertilizers, synthetic herbicides and pesticides, high-yield crops, and the method of multiple cropping, the agricultural industry was able to produce much larger quantities of food. This increase in productivity made it possible to feed the growing human population.
Q2. What is the White Revolution?
Ans: In India, Gujarat and Rajasthan had excess production as compared to local consumption of milk. In 1970, the National Dairy Development Board initiated activities like building veterinary centres, milk chilling centres, processing plants and strengthened the milk cooperative movement based on Anand Milk Union Limited (AMUL).
This was done through Operation Flood, with aid from the Food and Agriculture Organisation in the form of butter oil and milk powder. This ushered in the White Revolution in India, making it the world's largest milk producing country.
White revolution is also known as operation flood.
Q1. Jute is known as an important fiber crop; mention some of its uses.
Ans: Jute is also known as the 'Golden Fiber'. Jute is used to make gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets, etc.
Q2. Write the main characteristics of the Intensive Subsistence Agriculture.
Ans: Following are some of the main characteristics of the Intensive Subsistence Agriculture practiced in India:
(a) This type of farming is practiced in thickly populated areas.
(b) In this activity, farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour.
(c) There is huge population pressure on this type of farming.
(d) It is labour intensive.
(e) In a year 2 to 3 crops are grown.
(f) This involves high degree of use of biochemical inputs and irrigation for obtaining high production.
Q3. Explain the climatic conditions required for rubber cultivation in India.
Ans: Following are some of the climatic conditions required for rubber cultivation in India:
(a) Rubber is a plantation crop.
(b) Rubber is a crop of equatorial region but it is also grown tropical and subtropical regions.
(c) It needs moist and humid climate.
(d) It requires a temperature above 25°C.
(e) Annual rainfall above 200 cm.
(f) Major producers: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman & Nicobar islands and also in the Garo hills of Meghalaya.
(g) India is the fourth largest rubber producer in the world.
Q4. Describe the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of cotton in India.
Ans: Following are the geographical conditions required to grow cotton in India:
(a) Cotton requires high temperature more than 25°C.
(b) It requires light rainfall: 60 – 85 cm annually.
(c) Cotton requires 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
(d) It grows best on the drier parts of black cotton soil and requires at least 6 to 8 months.
(e) Major producers: Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
(f) India was the second largest producer of cotton after China.
Q5. Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
Ans: Following are some of the programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers:
(a) Green Revolution
(b) White Revolution
(c) Land Reform
(d) Establishment of Grameen Banks, Cooperative Societies.
(e) Providing loan facilities at lower rates of interest.
(f) Kissan Credit Cards (KCC).
(g) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on radio and television. For e.g. Krishi Darshan.
(h) The Government also introduced "Minimum Support Price, Remunerative and Procurement Prices for important crops" to check the exploitation of farmers by the speculators and middlemen.
Q6. What is plantation cropping? Mention some of the important features of the plantation cropping in India.
Ans: Plantation cropping is a type of commercial farming, where a single crop is grown on a large area. Following are some of the important features of the plantation cropping in India:
(a) More capital and a large number of workers are required.
(b) Final output of the plantation is used in various industries.
(c) Important plantation crops of India are: tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc.
(d) Plantation requires a well developed network of transportation, communication, processing industries and a good market.
Q7. Elaborate the cropping seasons of India.
Ans: India has three cropping seasons, i.e. Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.
(i) Crops are sown in winters between October to December and harvested between April to June.
(ii) Some of the major crops of this season are: wheat, barley, peas, gram, and oilseeds.
(iii) Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are the important producers of rabi crops.
(i) Crops are sown at the beginning of monsoon and harvested after rain i.e. between September to October.
(ii) Kharif crops are also known as summer crops.
(iii) Some of the major crops of this season are: rice, maize, jowar, bajra, jute.
(iv) Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are important rice growing states.
(v) In Assam, West Bengal and Orissa; three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are called Aus, Aman and Boro.
(i) In between Rabi and Kharif crops zaid crops.
(ii) Some of the major crops of this season are: watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.
(iii) Sugarcane is planted in this season but takes almost a year to grow.
Q8. Mention the geographical conditions required to grow maize crop in India.
Ans: Maize is used as both food and fodder crop. It is also known as "Corn". Following are the geographical conditions required to grow millet crops in India:
(a) Maize is basically a kharif crop. But in states like Bihar it is grown in rabi season.
(b) It requires a temperature range of 21°-27°C.
(c) Annual rainfall between 50 cm - 100 cm.
(d) It grows best in old alluvial soil,
(e) Major producers: Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
Q9. Highlight the key factors of coffee production in India. Which variety of Indian coffee is well known for its good quality throughout the world?
Ans: Following are the key factors of coffee production in India:
(a) Coffee is a plantation crop.
(b) It is the second most important beverage crop in India.
(c) Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop.
(d) India produced 3.2% of the total world coffee production.
(e) The cultivation of coffee was initially introduced on the Baba Budan Hills.
(f) Major producers: Nilgiris in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Indian coffee is well known for its good quality throughout the world. The Arabica variety of coffee was brought from Yemen and the thereon produced in India.
Q10. Differentiate between Subsistence Farming and Commercial Farming.