Objectives and Goals:
1. Define the term Agriculture.
2. Three types of economic activities (i.e. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary).
3. Types of farming (i.e. Primitive Subsistence Farming, Intensive Subsistence Farming and Commercial Farming).
4. Slash and Burn agricultural activity.
5. Cropping pattern (i.e. Rabi, Kharif and Zaid).
6. Major crops of India.
7. Food crops: Wheat, Rice, Millets, Maize, Pulses.
8. Food crops other than grains: Sugarcane, Oil Seeds, Coffee, Tea, etc.
9. Horticulture crops: Fruits and vegetables.
10. Non-food crops: Rubber, Fiber crops: Cotton and jute.
11. Technological and institutional reforms: Agricultural development.
12. Bhoodan – Gramdan & Land Reforms.
There are three types of economic activities. These are:
1. Primary Activities: Connected with extraction and production of natural resources like forestry, agriculture, mining, animal husbandry, etc.
2. Secondary Activities: Connected with processing and manufacturing of primary goods into finished goods. They get raw material from the Primary sector. For e.g. Iron ore into tools & machines, sugar cane into sugar, etc.
3. Tertiary Activities: Provides support to Primary and Secondary sectors through services, e.g. transportation, banking, tourism, etc.
• The science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock is known as "Agriculture". It is also called farming.
• The word "Agriculture" has been derived from the Latin word "Ager or Agri" meaning "Soil" and "Culture" means "Cultivation".
• Agriculture is a primary activity.
• It includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock.
• Two-third of India's population is still dependent on agriculture.
TYPES OF FARMING:
1. Primitive Subsistence Agriculture:
(a) This type of farming is practiced on small patches of land.
(b) Primitive tools like: Hoe, Dao, Digging Sticks and family/community labour are used.
(c) Farming mainly depends on monsoon and natural fertility of soil.
(d) Crops are grown as per the suitability of the environmental condition.
(e) This type of farming is also called 'slash and burn' agriculture.
(f) A patch of land is cleared by slashing the trees and burning them. The ash is then mixed with the soil and the crops. When the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot.
(g) The final output of this farming technique is just enough for the family.
(h) Slash and burn agriculture is also known as Shifting cultivation.
(i) Slash and burn agriculture is known by different names in the world:
• Jhumming: Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland
• Pamlou: Manipur
• Dipa: Bastar (Chhattisgarh) and Andaman & Nicobar Islands
• Bewar or Dahiya: Madhya Pradesh
• Podu or Penda: Andhra Pradesh
• Pama Dabi or Koman or Bringa: Orissa
• Kumara: Western Ghats
• Valre or Waltre: South eastern Rajasthan
• Khi: Himalayan belt
• Kuruwa: Jharkhand
• Milpa: Mexico and Central America
• Conuco: Venezuela
• Roca: Brazil
• Masole: Central Africa
• Lading: Indonesia
• Ray: Vietnam
2. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture:
(a) This type of farming is practiced in thickly populated areas.
(b) In intensive subsistence agriculture the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour.
(c) There is huge population pressure on this type of farming.
(d) It is labour intensive.
(e) This involves high degree of use of biochemical inputs and irrigation.
Problems of Intensive Farming:
(a) Division of land through successive generation leads to plot size getting smaller and smaller.
(b) This makes it impossible to properly manage the farm inputs.
(c) There is huge pressure on the agricultural land.
(d) Multiple cropping is practiced.
(e) Land is not left barren so that the soil regain its firtility. Thus, the farmers use excess amount of chemical fertilizers to get the best output.
(f) Moreover, large-scale farming is not possible in that case.
2. COMMERCIAL FARMING
(a) In commercial farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market.
(b) The area cultivated is very large.
(c) It is capital intensive.
(d) Most of the work is done by machines.
(e) Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides are used.
(f) High yielding variety (HYV) seeds are used in order to get maximum output.
(g) In the states like Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Maharashtra commercial farming is done on a large scale.
(h) Rice is a commercial crop in Punjab and Haryana but in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.
(a) In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area.
(b) More capital and a large number of workers are required.
(c) Final output of the plantation is used in various industries. For e.g. tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc.
(d) Plantation requires a well developed network of transportation, communication, processing industries and a good market.
India has three cropping seasons, i.e. Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.
(i) Crops are sown in winters between October to December and harvested between April to June.
(ii) Some of the major crops of this season are: wheat, barley, peas, gram, and oilseeds.
(iii) Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are the important producers of rabi crops.
(i) Crops are sown at the beginning of monsoon and harvested after rain i.e. between September to October.
(ii) Kharif crops are also known as summer crops.
(iii) Some of the major crops of this season are: rice, maize, jowar, bajra, jute.
(iv) Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are important rice growing states.
(v) In Assam, West Bengal and Orissa; three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are called Aus, Aman and Boro.
(i) In between Rabi and Kharif crops zaid crops.
(ii) Some of the major crops of this season are: watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.
(iii) Sugarcane is planted in this season but takes almost a year to grow.
MAJOR CROPS OF INDIA:
• Rice is the staple food crop of India.
• India is the second largest producer of rice, after China.
• Rice is a kharif crop.
• It requires high temperature (above 25°C), high humidity
• Annual rainfall above 100 cm.
• It grows best in alluvial clayey soil, which can retain water.
• In Assam, West Bengal and Orissa, three crops of paddy are grown in a year known as "Aus, Aman and Boro".
• Major producers: Northern plains, North Eastern States, Coastal and Deltaic Regions., etc.
• In the modern era, with the help of the technology and better irrigation facilities, rice is also grown in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and in parts of Rajasthan.
• Wheat is the main food crop in north and north-western parts of India.
• Wheat is a rabi crop grown in winter.
• It requires cool growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest.
• Annual rainfall of 50 to 75 cm, evenly distributed over the growing season.
• Two important wheat-growing zones in India are: The Ganga-Sutlej plains in the northwest and black soil region of Deccan.
• Major producers: Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh.
• They are also known as coarse grains.
• It needs low rainfall and high to moderate temperature.
• Jowar, bajra and ragi are millet crops grown in India.
• All these crops have very high nutritional value.
(i) Jowar grows in moist areas and hardly needs irrigation.
(ii) Major producers: Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
(i) Bajra grows well on sandy soil and shallow black soil.
(ii) Major producers: Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.
(i) Ragi grows in dry regions on red, black, sandy loamy, and shallow black soils.
(ii) Major producers: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.
• Maize is used as both food and fodder crop. It is also known as "Corn".
• Maize is basically a kharif crop. But in states like Bihar it is grown in rabi season.
• It requires a temperature range of 21°-27°C.
• Annual rainfall between 50 cm - 100 cm.
• It grows best in old alluvial soil,
• Major producers: Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
• India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world.
• Pulses are the great source of protein.
• Some of the pulses majorly grown in India are: Tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas, gram, etc.
• It needs less moisture and can even grow in dry conditions.
• Pulses are usually grown in rotation with other crops, so that the soil can regain its fertility.
• Major producers: Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
FOOD CROPS OTHER THAN GRAINS
• It is a tropical and subtropical crop.
• India is the second largest producer of sugarcane after Brazil.
• Sugarcane is a kharif crop.
• It requires a temperature range of 21°-27°C.
• Annual rainfall between 75 cm - 100 cm.
• Major producers: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.
2. Oil Seeds:
• Groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower are the main oilseeds grown in India.
• India was the second largest producer of groundnut in the world after China.
• India was the third largest producer of mustard seeds in the word after Canada and China.
• Oil seeds grown in India cover 12% of the total cropped area.
• Oil seeds are majorly used in cooking purpose.
• They are also used for the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.
• Groundnut accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country.
• Groundnut is a kharif crop.
• Gujarat was the largest producer of groundnut followed by Andhra Pradesh & Tamil Nadu.
• Linseed and mustard are rabi crops.
• Sesamum is a kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south.
• Castor is grown both as rabi and kharif crops.
• Tea is a plantation crop.
• It is an important beverage crop.
• It grows well in tropical and subtropical climate.
• It grows well in deep and fertile well drained soil. The soil should be rich in humus and organic matter.
• Tea bushes require warm and moist frost free climate through the year.
• Frequent showers distributed throughout the year.
• Cheap and skilled labour is required in large number to pick the leaves.
• Tea is processed within the tea gardens to restore its freshness.
• India is the leading producer of tea in the world.
• Major producers: Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Meghalaya, Tripura, etc. Darjeeling is famous for the unique quality of tea production.
• Coffee is a plantation crop.
• It is an important beverage crop.
• Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop.
• India produced 3.2% of the total world coffee production.
• Indian coffee is well known for its good quality throughout the world.
• Initially, the Arabica variety of coffee was brought from Yemen and produced in India.
• The cultivation of coffee was initially introduced on the Baba Budan Hills.
• Major producers: Nilgiris in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
India was the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world after China.
• India produces both tropical and temperate fruits.
• Mango: Maharashta, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.
• Oranges: Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya).
• Bananas: Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
• Lichi and Guava: Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
• Pineapples: Meghalaya.
• Grapes: Andhra Pradesh and Maharashta.
• Apples, Pears, Apricots and Walnuts: Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
• India produces 13 % of the world's vegetables.
• India is an important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.
NON FOOD CROPS
• Rubber is a plantation crop.
• Rubber is a crop of equatorial region but it is also grown tropical and subtropical regions.
• It needs moist and humid climate.
• It requires a temperature above 25°C.
• Annual rainfall above 200 cm.
• Major producers: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman & Nicobar islands and also in the Garo hills of Meghalaya.
• India is the fourth largest rubber producer in the world.
• India was the second largest producer of cotton after China.
• It grows best on the drier parts of black cotton soil and requires at least 6 to 8 months.
• Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
• Major producers: Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
• Jute is also known as the 'Golden Fiber'.
• It grows well on well drained alluvial soil in the flood plain.
• It requires high temperature and humid climate.
• It requires heavy rainfall.
• Jute is used to make gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets, etc.
• Major producers: West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya.
TECHNOLOGICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS
• Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population.
• Land reform was the main focus of our First five Year Plan.
• Right to Inheritance.
• In 1960s and 1970s the Government of India introduced "Agricultural Reforms".
(a) The Green Revolution. To improve farm output. Use of new technology & HYV seeds was encouraged. Green revolution produced very good results; especially in Punjab & Haryana.
(b) The White Revolution (Operation Flood) was initiated to improve milk production in the country.
• In 1980s and 1990s comprehensive land development programmes were initiated, that included both "Institutional and Technical Reforms"
• Provision of crop insurance against natural calamities (for e.g. drought, floods, etc.), fire, disease, etc.
• Establishment of Grameen Banks, Cooperative Societies.
• Providing loan facilities at a lower rate of interest.
• Kissan Credit Cards (KCC).
• Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS).
• Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on radio and television. For e.g. Krishi Darshan, It commenced on 26 January 1967 and is the longest running television series in the world.
• The Government also introduced "Minimum Support Price, Remunerative and Procurement Prices for important crops" to check the exploitation of farmers by the speculators and middlemen.
Bhoodan – Gramdan & Land Reforms
• Land reform was the main focus of the First Five Year Plan.
• Vinoba Bhave started the Bhoodan Andolan to encourage big landlords to donate a part of their land to the landless farmers.
• Many people came out in support of Vinoba Bhave and donated land.
• Small plot size hampers proper farm management.
• To improve the condition, the government brought certain measures for land reform.
• In some states, land was redistributed so that all of the land owned by a farmer could come on a single plot.
• The reform was successful in some states (like Punjab and UP) but could not be implemented throughout the country, because of poor response by farmers.
Q1. What is Palar Pani"?
Ans: In the arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, rainwater is considered as the purest form of natural water, this rain water is commonly known as Palar Pani.
Q2. Explain how water becomes a renewable resource.
Ans: Three-fourth of the earth's surface is covered with water, but only a small proportion of it is freshwater that can be used. This freshwater is mainly obtained from surface run off and ground water that is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle or the water cycle. In this cycle majorly three processes that takes place, i.e. Evaporation, condensation and precipitation. The process of water cycle is never ending thus making water a renewable resource.
Q3. Mention some of the facts and figures about water.
Ans: Following are some of the facts and figures about water
(a) Out of total volume of water on earth; 97.5% exists in oceans and seas.
(b) About 2.5% of total water is available as freshwater.
(c) 70% of total freshwater is present as frozen ice in icebergs and glaciers.
(d) A little less than 30% of total freshwater is stored as groundwater.
(e) India receives about 4% of global precipitation.
(f) India ranks 133rd in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum.
(g) The total renewable water resources in India are estimated at 1,897 sq km per annum.
(h) It is predicted that large parts of India will join regions with absolute water scarcity; by 2025.
Q4. Explain the following:
(a) Bamboo Drip Irrigation System
(b) Guls & Kuls
(c) Khadins & Johads
(a) Bamboo Drip Irrigation System: Bamboo drip irrigation system is a 200 year old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipe. Bamboo drip irrigation system is practiced in Meghalaya.
(b) Guls & Kuls: In Western Himalayas people build diversion channels like 'Guls' or 'Kuls' for the agricultural purpose.
(c) Khadins & Johads: In the arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to sand and moisten the soil, these water storage structures are known as Khadins in Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) and Johads in other parts of Rajasthan.
Q5. What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?
Ans: Scarcity of water means shortage of water or in other words if the demand of water is much more than the supply of water; it leads to Scarcity of water. Some of the causes for water scarcity are:
(d) Increase in agricultural production.
(e) Over-exploitation and mismanagement of water.
(f) Water Pollution.
(g) Variation in the seasonal and annual precipitation.
Q6. What are the main purposes of constructing multipurpose river dam projects?
Ans: Following are some of the main purposes of multipurpose river dam projects:
(a) Generating Hydroelectricity.
(b) Flood Control.
(c) Development of Pisciculture.
(d) Water for agricultural use: Irrigation.
(e) Water for domestic usage.
(f) Water for Industrial usage.
(g) Soil conservation.
(h) Development of tourism.
Q7. What is the need for water conservation? Suggest some of the measures to conserve water resources.
Ans: Water is one of the most important natural resource; following are some of the reasons why water conservation is must:
(a) Water resource is limited.
(b) Water is unevenly distributed.
(c) Population is growing rapidly, so is the demand of water.
(d) Agriculture depends on water.
(e) Water plays a very vital role in the industrial sector.
Some of the measures to be taken for the conservation of water:
(a) Educating the people to avoid the over usage and wastage of water.
(b) Rain water harvesting.
(c) Constructing more water storage reservoirs.
(d) Linking of rivers, so that the water can be transferred from one to another.
(e) Interstate water disputes must be resolved.
(f) Government should take serious steps to check water mafia's.
Q8.Usage of tankas is very common in the state of Rajasthan. Mention some of the features of these 'tankas' built in the houses of Bikaner and Phalodi.
(a) The tankas could be as large as a big room; household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 meters deep, 4.27 meters long and 2.44 meters wide.
(b) The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard.
(c) They were connected to the roofs of the houses through pipes.
(d) Rain water from the rooftops travel down the pipes and finally is stored in these underground tankas.
(e) The first spell of rain is usually not collected as this cleans the roofs and the pipes. The rainwater from the subsequent showers is then collected in the tankas.
(f) The collected water is then used whenever there is water shortage.
Q9. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects.
Q10. On the map of India locate dam's alongwith the rivers.
(B) Bhakra Nangal
(D) Rana Pratap Sagar
(E) Sardar Sarovar
(G) Nagarjuna Sagar
Ans: Refer the map given in the book and locate.
Objectives and Goals:
1. Define Water as a Resource.
2. Water: Some facts and figures.
3. What is Water Scarcity?
4. Water Resource Management and Conservation.
5. Multipurpose river dam projects.
6. Advantages and disadvantages of Multipurpose River dam projects.
7. Narmada Bachao Andolan.
8. Irrigation leads to change in cropping pattern.
9. Rain water harvesting.
10. Bamboo drip irrigation system.
Water - Some Facts and Figures:
1. Out of total volume of water on earth; 96.5% exists in oceans and seas.
2. About 2.5% of total water is available as freshwater.
3. 70% of total freshwater is present as frozen ice in icebergs and glaciers.
4. A little less than 30% of total freshwater is stored as groundwater.
5. India receives about 4% of global precipitation.
6. India ranks 133rd in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum.
7. The total renewable water resources in India are estimated at 1,897 sq km per annum.
8. It is predicted that large parts of India will join regions with absolute water scarcity; by 2025.
Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region.
1. Overexploitation of water, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups are the main causes of water scarcity.
2. Large population needs ever more water.
3. Large scale farming needs lot of water for irrigation.
4. 4. Rapid Urbanization and Industrialization.
5. Demand has been increasing but the process of natural recharge of groundwater has suffered because of several reasons.
(a) Large scale deforestation has disturbed the natural recharge of groundwater at many places.
(b) Construction of concrete buildings, factories and roads has also made the ground less impervious to rainwater. This has almost totally stopped the percolation of Rainwater to recharge groundwater.
6. Excess use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides has contaminated groundwater at many places. The contamination is at such a high level that water has become unfit for human consumption.
7. Sewage and effluents are being discharged into rivers and ponds; without being treated. This has turned most of the rivers into filthy drains.
MULTI-PURPOSE RIVER PROJECTS
Water Resource Management:
• India had a long tradition of building various structures to manage water resources. Irrigation systems were built as early as during the Mauryan Empire.
• At present, many multipurpose dam projects have been built in India.
• These dams serve many purposes. For e.g.:
(a) They prevent flood by checking the flow of water.
(b) The water from the dams is used through a system of canals to irrigate far flung areas.
(c) Dams are also used for electricity generation.
(d) Drinking water is also supplied from the dams.
• But dams have caused a lot of people being displaced from their ancestral lands.
• Additionally, a vast area of land gets submerged in the catchment area of dam.
• This results in large scale environmental consequences.
• Due to these reasons, many groups have begun protesting against building of large dams. "Narmada Bachao Andolan", "Tehri Dam Andolan", etc. are examples of such movements.
• Irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to water intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like salinisation of the soil. At the same time, it has transformed the social landscape i.e. increasing the social gap between the richer landowners and the landless poor.
• Most of the rainwater just flows off without seeping down the ground.
• This can be prevented by using rainwater harvesting.
• Rainwater can be collected for future use or can be channelized to recharge groundwater.
• Rooftop rainwater harvesting is ideal to be applied at small scale.
• Many infrastructure projects; like Metro rail and flyovers have also started making provisions for rainwater harvesting.
Some of the methods used for Rainwater Harvesting:
(a) In hill and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like the 'Guls' or 'Kuls' of the Western Himalayas for agriculture.
(b) In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the 'khadins' in Jaisalmer and 'Johads' in other parts of Rajasthan.
(c) Rooftop rainwater harvesting was commonly practiced to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan. Roof top rain water harvesting is the most common practice in Shillong,
(e) In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed barrage channels to irrigate their fields.
(f) Bamboo drip irrigation system is a 200 year old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipe. Bamboo drip irrigation system is practiced in Meghalaya.
Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting:
(a) In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water.
(b) The tanks could be as large as a big room; one household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 metres deep, 4.27 metres long and 2.44 metres wide.
(c) The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard. They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground 'tankas'.
(d) The first spell of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs and the pipes.
(e) The rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected.
(f) The rainwater can be stored in the tankas till the next rainfall making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up, particularly in the summers.
(g) Rainwater, or Palar Pani, as commonly referred to in these parts, is considered the purest form of natural water.
(h) Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the 'tanka' to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.
Important facts of Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting:
(a) In western Rajasthan, sadly the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is on the decline as plenty of water is available due to the perennial Rajasthan Canal, though some houses still maintain the tankas since they do not like the taste of tap water.
(b) In Gendathur, remote backward villages in Mysore, Karnataka, villagers have installed, in their household's rooftop, rainwater harvesting system to meet their water needs. Nearly 200 households have installed this system and the village has earned the rare distinction of being rich in rainwater. Gendathur receives an annual precipitation of 1,000 mm, and with 80 per cent of collection efficiency and of about 10 fillings, every house can collect and use about 50,000 litres of water annually. From the 20 houses, the net amount of rainwater harvested annually amounts to
(c) Tamil Nadu is the first state in India which has made roof top rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state. There are legal provisions to punish the defaulters.
(d) Roof top rain water harvesting is the most common practice in Shillong, Meghalaya. It is interesting because Cherapunjee and Mawsynram situated at a distance of 55 km. from Shillong receive the highest rainfall in the world, yet the state capital Shillong faces acute shortage of water. Nearly every household in the city has a roof top rain water harvesting structure. Nearly 15-25 per cent of the total water requirement of the household comes from roof top water harvesting.