01 June, 2015

Class VII: Chapter 1 (Our Environment) Question & Answers

Short Answer Questions

Q1. What do you understand by Environment?
Ans: The immediate natural surroundings of man is called environment. E.g.: Plants, Air, Water, Landforms, Wildlife, etc.......
The word Environment has been derived from a French word "Environner" which means "Neighborhood".

Q2. Write a short note on Biosphere.
Ans: Plant and animal kingdom together make biosphere or the living world. It is a narrow zone of the earth where Land (Lithosphere), Water (Hydrosphere) and Air (Atmosphere) interact with each other to support life. Biosphere makes the earth a unique planet in the solar system.

Q3. Describe ecosystem.
Ans: The Interrelation between plants and animals in the natural environment is called Ecosystem. There could be an ecosystem of large rain forest, grassland, desert, mountains, lake, river, ocean and even a small pond.

Q4. Explain the composition of the air.
Ans: Atmosphere is composed of various gases. Major gases present are: Nitrogen – 78%, Oxygen – 21%, Argon - .93%, Carbon Dioxide – 0.03%, Other Gases – 0.04% (like – helium, hydrogen, methane, ozone, etc. and water vapours & dust particles.

 

Long Answer Questions

  Q5. What are the major components of environment?

Ans: Different components of the environment are:
(a) Natural Environment (b) Human Environment (c) Human Made Environment

 

Q6. Discuss lithosphere as one of the domains of the earth.
Ans: The hard outermost solid layer of the earth which is made up of rock material is called crust. This solid crust of the earth is called Lithosphere. On this lithosphere we find different landforms such as the mountains, plateaus and plains. It provides us land where we live and also, it is a great source of vegetation, wildlife and mineral wealth. The crust is covered by a thin layer of soil which is of great importance for life. Lithosphere provides us the three basic necessities of life, i.e. Food, Cloth and Shelter.

Q7. How do plants and animals depend on each other?
Ans: All plants, animals and human beings depend on their immediate surroundings. Often they are also interdependent on each other. "This relation between the living organisms, as well as the relation between the organisms and their surroundings form an ecosystem". There could be an ecosystem of large rain forest, grassland, desert, mountains, lake, river, ocean and even a small pond. In every ecosystem, there is a perfect balance in the transfer of energy and matter among the different components. This is known as Ecological Balance.
To maintain the balance "Food Chain" is the best example, in the process plants produce food for themselves and the plants are consumed by herbivores and herbivores by carnivores, (Omnivores eat both plants and animals) and ultimately, when these plants and animals die they are decomposed by the decomposers and thus, the dead matter of plants and animals is converted into simple compound which then enter the soil and air.

Q8. Discuss the interdependence of human world and environment.
Ans: Human world entirely depends on the environment for their survival. The basic needs of life (i.e. food, cloth and shelter) are fulfilled by the environment. But in the current scenario few of the human activities have caused great imbalance in the environment, for e.g. Deforestation, Overgrazing, Pollution, Casual & careless attitude towards the environment, Urbanization, Industrialization, Overpopulation, etc.
Now, a perfect balance is required between the natural and human environment. Survival of human being is not possible without the natural environment. Thus, we should always try and protect our environment and human beings live a long and healthy life.

 

HOTS (High Order Thinking) Questions

Q9. Why would the earth be barren without the atmosphere?
Ans: The layer of air around us is called Atmosphere. Following is the importance of atmosphere: -
(a) It gives us life giving gases like oxygen for breathing of animal kingdom and carbon dioxide is inhaled by plant kingdom.
(b) It has Ozone layer which protects us from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.
(c) There are tiny dust particles in the atmosphere which helps in the formation of the rain droplets.
(d) It acts as a blanket which prevents the earth from becoming too hot during day and too cold during night.
(e) It protects us from falling meteors and other cosmic dusts. They burn when coming in contact with the atmosphere.
(f) Presence of gases, dust particles and water vapours lend colours to the sky.

Thus, atmosphere plays a very vital role and in its absence there won't be any life and earth will be barren.

Q10. Why are human beings the most important part of the human environment?
Ans. There are a number of different things that make humans different from other creatures. Human beings adapt themselves to the natural environment by making modifications in their food, cloth and shelter. They also modify their natural environment to suit their social, biological, cultural and economic needs.
The early human beings slept on trees and caves, they used to roam around in search of food as that of other creatures but with the passage of time, with the help of their mind, thinking skills, ability, knowledge, hard work, etc. they have changed themselves drastically. Now, the modern man is far more organized, skilled, well mannered and cultured. They live in houses, eat cooked food, travel from one place to another by various means of transportation, etc.

 

-----x-----X-----x-----

 

17 April, 2015

Class VII: Chapter 1 - Our Environment

Important term to remember:

1.      Environment: The immediate natural surroundings of man is called environment. E.g.: Plants, Air, Water, Landforms, Wildlife, etc.......

The word Environment has been derived from a French word "Environner" which means "Neighborhood".

2.      Components of Environment:

 (a) Natural Environment               (b) Human Environment        (c) Human Made Environment

 

3.      Biotic Components: All living things are known as Biotic Components. E.g.: Plants, Animal Kingdoms including man, etc....

4.      Abiotic Components: All non-living things are known as Abiotic Components. E.g.: Air, Water, Land, etc.....

5.      Ecosystem: Interrelation between plants and animals in the natural environment is called Ecosystem.

6.      Ecology: The Science with studies the relationship between living and non-living environment is termed as Ecology.

7.      Domains of Earth: The Four domains or realms of the Earth which jointly support life are: -

         (a) Atmosphere     (b) Hydrosphere         (c) Lithosphere          (d) Biosphere

8.     Biosphere: Plant and animal kingdom together make Biosphere or the living worlds. It is a narrow zone of the Earth where Air, Water and Land interact with each other to support life.

 

Geography studies the interrelationship between human beings and the environment.

 

Natural Environment:

1. Lithosphere

  • It is the solid crust or the hard top layer of the earth.
  • It is made up of rocks and minerals and covered by a thin layer of soil.
  • It is an irregular surface with various landforms such as mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, etc. Landforms are found over the continents and also on the ocean floors.
  • Lithosphere is the domain that provides us forests, grasslands for grazing, land for agriculture and human settlements. It is also a source of mineral wealth.

2.Hydrosphere

  • The water bodies on the earth's surface together form the Hydrosphere. E.g. Seas & Oceans, Rivers, Lakes, etc.
  • Earth is also known as "Watery Planet", because 71% of it's surface is covered with water.
  • Water is used for various purposes, i.e. domestic, agriculture, industries, transportation, generating electricity, etc.

3.Atmosphere

  • The gaseous envelope around the earth's surface consisting of mixture of gases, water vapour and tiny dust particles is called atmosphere.
  • Atmosphere is endless with no visible boundary.
  • Atmosphere is composed of various gases. Major gases present are: Nitrogen – 78%, Oxygen – 21%, Argon - .93%, Carbon Dioxide – 0.03%, Other Gases – 0.04% (like – helium, hydrogen, methane, ozone, etc. and water vapours & dust particles.
  • Ozone layer protects us from harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.
  • It acts as a blanket which prevents the earth from becoming too hot during day and too cold during night.

4.Biosphere

  • Plant and animal kingdom together make biosphere or the living world.
  • It is a narrow zone of the earth where Land (Lithosphere), Water (Hydrosphere) and Air (Atmosphere) interact with each other to support life.
  • Biosphere makes the earth a unique planet in the solar system.

 

 

ECOSYSTEM

  • All plants, animals and human beings depend on their immediate surroundings. Often they are also interdependent on each other.
  • This relation between the living organisms, as well as the relation between the organisms and their surroundings form an ecosystem.
  • There could be an ecosystem of large rain forest, grassland, desert, mountains, lake, river, ocean and even a small pond.
  • In every ecosystem, there is a perfect balance in the transfer of energy and matter among the different components. This is known as Ecological Balance. 

 

ELEMENTS OF BIOSPHERE

 1.  Elements of Biosphere:Basically there are three elements of Biosphere: -

(a)  Producers      (b)  Consumers        (c)  Decomposers

(a) Producers: Plant Kingdom.

(b) Consumers:

     (i)   Herbivores: First consumers, plant eating animals. E.g. goat, dear, etc. They are large in number and reproduce faster.

     (ii)  Carnivores: Second level consumers. Flesh eating animals. E.g. lion, tiger, etc. They have sharp teeth and claws and reproduce at a slower rate.

     (iii) Omnivores: Consumers. They eat both plants and animals. E.g. man, ant, etc

(c) Decomposers: Microorganisms like bacteria get their food from dead plants and animals by decomposing them and are known as Decomposers. They keep the natural environment clean because they convert the dead matter of plants and animals into simple compound which then enter the soil and air.

 2.      Food Chain: In the process of consuming plants by herbivores and herbivores by carnivores, there is a transfer of energy from one level to another, which is called Food Chain.

 

 

HUMAN ENVIRONMENT

  • Human beings are the most important part of environment. They not only interact with the environment but also modify it according to their needs.
  • Early humans adapted themselves to the natural surroundings. They led a simple life and fulfilled their requirements from the nature around them. With time needs grew and became more varied.
  • Modifications done by human beings have disturbed our ecosystem. Man is responsible for degrading the environment. Deforestation, Soil Erosion, etc. are some of the important factors.
  • Humans must maintain balance between natural and human environment. Resources to be used wisely and should be preserved for future.

 

World Water Day: World Water Day is celebrated on 22 March every year.

World Environment Day: World Environment Day is celebrated on 05 June every year.

 

"LET'S JOIN OUR HANDS TOGETHER TO MAKE OUR ENVIRONMENT CLEAN AND GREEN"

 

-----x-----X-----x-----

11 March, 2015

Class VII: Summative Assessment - II (Geography) Answer Key

 

Multiple choice questions:

Q1. Which one of the following is not a determining factor of vegetation (1)
(a) Temperature (b) Rainfall (c) Sunlight (d) Development
Ans: (d) Development

Q2. Earliest settlements grew around (1)
(a) River Banks (b) Forest Areas (c) Plains (d) Foot Hills
Ans: (a) River Banks

Q3. The amount of fresh water present on the earth is (1)
(a) 3% (b) 1% (c) 29% (d) 8%
Ans: (a) 3%

 

Very short answer questions:

Q4. What is normal lapse rate? (1)
Ans: Temperature decreases at the rate of 1 degree Celsius from every 165 mtrs of ascent. This decline is known as normal lapse rate.

Q5. What does the word 'Tsunami' means? (1)
Ans: Tsunami is a Japanese word that means "Harbour waves" as the harbours get destroyed whenever there is tsunami. The term "Tsunami" has been derived from: - "Tsu" – Harbour and "Nami" – Waves. Meaning huge tidal waves.

 

Short answer questions:

Q6. Distinguish between: Tropical and Temperate Grasslands (2)
Ans: (Any two points)

Q7. Distinguish between: Rural and Urban Settlement. (2)
Ans: (Any two points)

Q8. Distinguish between: Spring Tides and Neap Tides. (2)
Ans: (Any two points)

 

Medium answer questions:

Q9. Define the term Communication What are its two categories? What is their importance? (3)
Ans: Communication is the process of conveying messages (sending or receiving) and ideas to others. With the development of technology humans have devised new and fast modes of communication.
The two categories of communication are:
(a) Personal Communication: Postal and telegraph services, telephones, e-mails, etc are personal means of communication.
(b) Mass Communication: Through Newspapers, magazines, radio, television, films, etc. Communication can be done with large no. Of people. This is known as Mass Communication.

With the help of these two means of communications life has become very fast and comfortable. With just one click we can share information throughout the world and also by just sitting at home itself we come to know what is happening in the world. The means of communications have made the world a large global society.

Q10. Explain the three movements of ocean water? (3)
Ans: Waves, Tides and Ocean Currents are the three movements of ocean water.
WAVES
• When the water on the surface of the ocean rises and falls alternately, they are called waves.
• During a storm, the winds blowing at very high speed form huge waves. These may cause tremendous destruction.
• An earthquake, a volcanic eruption or underwater landslides can shift large amounts of ocean water. As a result a huge tidal wave called tsunami originates.
• Tsunami is a Japanese word that means "Harbour waves" as the harbours get destroyed whenever there is tsunami. The term "Tsunami" has been derived from: - "Tsu" – Harbour and "Nami" – Waves. Meaning huge tidal waves.

TIDES
• The rhythmic rise and fall of ocean water twice in a day is called a tide.
• It is high tide when water covers much of the shore by rising to its highest level.
• It is low tide when water falls to its lowest level and recedes from the shore.
• During the full moon and new moon days, the sun, the moon and the earth are in the same line and the tides are highest. These tides are called spring tides.
• But when the moon is in its first and last quarter, the ocean waters get drawn in diagonally opposite directions by the gravitational pull of sun and earth resulting in low tides. These tides are called neap tides.
• High tides help in navigation. This helps the ships to arrive at the harbour more easily.
• The high tides also help in fishing. Also, the rise and fall of water due to tides is being used to generate electricity in some places.

OCEAN CURRENTS
• The horizontal movement of ocean water in the form of streams flowing constantly in definite directions is known as Ocean Currents.
• Factors affecting the Ocean Currents: -
(a) Planetary Winds.
(b) Rotation of the Earth
(c) Variation in the temperature
(d) Density of ocean water
(e) Shapes of the coastlines
• The ocean currents may be warm or cold.
• The warm ocean currents originate near the equator and move towards the poles.
• The cold currents carry water from polar or higher latitudes to tropical or lower latitudes.
• The ocean current influence the temperature conditions of the area.
• The place where warm and cold currents meet, dens fog is produced, reducing the visibility and thus, making it difficult for navigation. But at the same time these are the best fishing grounds of the world.
• The general circulation of ocean currents is clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and anti-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

Q11. Name the different means of transportation. Explain any two means of transportation (3)
Ans: Different means of transportation are Roadways, Waterways, Railways, Airways. Explain any two.
ROADWAYS
• The most commonly used means of transport are the roads. Especially, for short distances. Roads can be metalled (Pucca) and unmetalled (Kutcha).
• Roads are the best means to link the rural and urban places across the country.
• In developed countries road network is very good.
• The plains have a dense network of roads because it is easy to construct roads in plain than in the mountains.
• In India we have National Highways connecting all major cities of the country. There are state highways and district roads which connects all cities and towns.
• Manali-Leh highway in the Himalayan Mountains is one of the highest roadways in the world.

RAILWAYS
• Railways is the fastest and the cheapest means of land transportation .
• Diesel and electric engines have largely replaced the steam engines.
• Electric engines are fast and eco-friendly and don't cause pollution.
• Factors responsible for the construction of railway lines: - Relief Features, Climatic Conditions, Density of Population and availability of resources.
• Railway network is more developed in the plains than in the mountiains.
• Indian railway network is well developed. It is the largest in Asia.

WATERWAYS
• Waterways are the oldest and the cheapest means of transportation to carry heavy and bulky goods from one country to another.
• Waterways are mainly of two types – inland waterways and sea routes.
• Inland Waterways: Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland waterways. Some of the important inland waterways are the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system, the Great Lakes in North America and the river Nile in Africa.
• Sea routes and oceanic routes are mostly used for transporting merchandise and goods from one country to another. These routes are connected with the ports. Some of the important ports of the world are Singapore and Mumbai in Asia, New York, Los Angeles in North America, Rio de Janerio in South America, Durban and Cape Town in Africa, Sydney in Australia, London and Rotterdam in Europe.
• Important Sea Routes of the world: North Atlantic Route which connects North America with Europe. Mediterranean Sea – Indian Ocean connecting Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Cape of Good Hope-Australia
• Major sea ports of India: - Mumbai, Kandla, Kochi, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Kolkata.

AIRWAYS
• This is the fastest & most comfortable means of transportation and also the most expensive due to high cost of fuels.
• Air traffic is adversely affected by bad weather like fog and storms, etc.
• It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways.
• Helicopters are extremely useful in most inaccessible areas and in time of calamities for rescuing people and distributing food, water, clothes and medicines.
• Some of the important airports are Delhi, Mumbai, New York, London, Paris, Frankfurt and Cairo.
• Air Services are of two types:
(1) Domestic Airways: Fly within the boundaries of a country.
(2) International Airways: Fly abroad and connects major cities of the world.

 

Long answer questions:

Q12. With a suitable diagram explain the structure of the atmosphere. (5)
Ans. Structure of Atmosphere: Atmosphere is divided into five different layers (Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Ionosphere and Exosphere). It extends upto 500 kms.

1. Troposphere:
• This layer is next to earth surface. It Extends upto 15 kms from the earth's surface.
• Temperature decreases at the rate of 1 degree Celsius from every 165 mtrs of ascent. This decline is known as normal lapse rate.
• Average height: 13 kms at poles and 18 kms over the equator.
• All weather changes take place in this layer. Oxygen exists in this layer.
• The boundary separating troposphere and stratosphere is known as tropopause.

2. Stratosphere:
• This layer is next to troposphere and it extends from 15 kms to 50 kms.
• This layer is free from weather changes, cloud formation and dust particles. Hence, this layer is ideal for the air transportation.
• Ozone layer is present here. Ozone layer absorbs/reflects the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.
• The boundary separating stratosphere and mesosphere is known as stratopause.

3. Mesosphere:
• This layer is next to stratosphere and it extends from 50 kms to 80 kms.
• Temperature again drops in this layer and can reach upto -100 degree Celsius at the upper boundary layer.
• The boundary separating mesosphere and ionosphere is known as mesopause.

4. Thermosphere:
• This layer is next to mesosphere and it extends from 80 kms to 400 kms.
• This layer contains electrically charged particles called ions, which are found at a height of 250 kms. Due to presence of these ions, this layer is also known as ionosphere.
• This layer protects us from the harmful radiation. Temperature increase with increase in height.

5. Exosphere:
• This is the uppermost layer above the ionosphere and it extends from 400 kms onwards and there is no end. It is a very thin layer and it merges with the space.
• This layer protects us from the harmful radiation.
• Temperature is very high. Light gases like hydrogen and helium float into space from here.

Q13. What do you mean by natural vegetations? How natural vegetation of the world has been classified? Describe the characteristics of forests (any three). (5)
Ans: Plants which grow naturally without any human interference, covering a large area is known as natural vegetation.
Natural vegetation of the world has been classified into three types: Forest, Grasslands and Desert Shrubs.
Characteristics of the forests (any three).

Tropical Rainforests:
These forests are also called Tropical Evergreen.

Location:
• Forests found near the Equator (10° North to 10° South) in Amazon & Zaire Basin and Southeast Asia.
Climate:
• These regions are hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year.
Characteristics:
• As there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are called evergreen.
• Maximum varieties of trees are found. Trees are tall with large trunks.
• The thick canopies of the closely spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate inside the forest even in the day time. Thus, grass is not found in these forests.
• Hardwood trees like rosewood, teak, sal, ebony, and mahogany are the common trees found here.
• Here the population found is very less. Due to dense forests commercial exploitation of these forests has not be possible, making them economically backward.
Wildlife:
• Large variety and most colourful animals are found here.
• Monkey, Ape, Birds, Hippopotamus, snake, python, Frog, Crocodile, etc. Anaconda, world's largest snake is also found in these areas.

Tropical Deciduous Forests:
These forests are also called Monsoon Forests.

Location:
• Forests found in large part of India, Northern Australia and in Central America.
Climate:
• These regions are warm and receive rainfall less than 200 cms.
Characteristics:
• These regions experience seasonal changes. Trees shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water.
• Trees like sandalwood, teak, sal, ebony, bamboo, etc. are the common trees found here.
• Forests are not very dense thus; commercial exploitation of these forests is possible.
Wildlife:
• Tigers, lions, elephants, langoors and monkeys are the common animals of these regions.

Temperate Evergreen Forests:
These forests are also called Mixed Forests.
Location:
• Forests found in South-eastern parts of USA, Australia, Brazil and China.
Climate:
• These regions have cool winters and receive rainfall throughout the year.

Characteristics:
• They comprise both hard and soft wood trees like oak, pine, eucalyptus, etc.
• They look like Tropical Forest in thickness and variety.
• Timber (wood) from these forests is used for commercial purpose.
Wildlife:
• Deer, Wolves, Bears, Wild Boar, Foxes, Squirrels, Badgers, Skunks, Owls, Finches, etc. are the common animals of these regions.

Temperate Deciduous Forests:
These forests are also called Monsoon Forests.

Location:
• As we go towards higher latitudes, there are more temperate deciduous forests. These are found in the north eastern part of USA, China, Japan, New Zealand, etc.
Climate:
• These regions have cool winters and receive moderate rainfall.
Characteristics:
• Trees shed their leaves in autumn season and remain leafless through winters.
• The common trees are oak, ash, beech, etc.
• Forests are not very dense thus; commercial exploitation of these forests is possible.
Wildlife:
• Deer, foxes, wolves are the animals commonly found. Birds like pheasants, monals are also found here.

Mediterranean Forests:

Location:
• Found in areas around Mediterranean Sea, Central Chile, South-West USA, Australia, Africa.
Climate:
• These regions have hot & dry summers and mild & wet winters.
Characteristics:
• Mediterranean trees adapt themselves to dry summers with the help of their thick barks and wax coated leaves which help them reduce transpiration. Also, here the plants have long tap roots to reach underground water, called "Xerophytic Plants".
• Mediterranean regions are known as 'Orchards of the world' for their fruit cultivation.
• Citrus fruits such as oranges, figs, olives and grapes are commonly cultivated here because people have removed the natural vegetation in order to cultivate what they want to.
Wildlife:
• There isn't much wildlife here.

Coniferous Forests:
These forests are also called "Taiga Forest".

Location:
• Found in the higher latitudes (50° – 70°) of Northern hemisphere.
Climate:
• These regions have cool & short summers and cold & long winters. These forests are also seen in the higher altitudes. Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia and Canada.
Characteristics:
• Forests consist of tall, softwood evergreen trees.
• Limited species of trees are found. These trees are evergreen and grow apart from each other.
• Trees are conical shaped with needle shaped leaves and trees are found in large groups.
• Chir, pine, cedar are the important variety of trees in these forests. Lumbering is the common activity. Soft wood is used for manufacturing paper.
Wildlife:
Fur-bearing animals like Silver fox, mink, and polar bear are the common animals found here.

 

-----x-----X-----x-----

30 January, 2015

Class VII: Chapter 7 (Human Environment – Settlement, Transport & Communication) Question & Answers

 

Very Short Answer Questions

Q1. Name the means which help to communicate with several people simultaneously.
Ans: Mass Communication.

Q2. What is compact settlement?
Ans: Compact settlements are basically found in the plains. In this type of settlement the built-up area is compact and inter-house distance is small. Here the population is more.

Q3. Write any two benefits of railways.
Ans: Following are the two benefits of railways:
(a) Railways is the fastest and the cheapest means of land transportation.
(b) Electric engines used in railways are fast and eco-friendly and don't cause pollution.

Q4. Which is the fastest but most expensive means of transport?
Ans: Airways is the fastest but most expensive means of transport.

Q5. Name any two means of personal and mass communication.
Ans: Following are the means:
(a) Personal Communication: Telephones, emails, Post, etc.
(b) Mass communication: Television, Radio, Newspaper, etc.

 

Short Answer Questions

Q6. Name the different types of settlements.
Ans:

Q7. Define the term 'Communication'.
Ans: Communication is the process of conveying messages (sending or receiving) and ideas to others. With the development of technology humans have devised new and fast modes of communication.

Q8. Which developments have changed the world into a global village?
Ans. Development in the different means of communications (i.e personal and mass communication) has changed the world into a global village.

 

Long Answer Questions

Q9. Explain the different means of transport.
Ans: The different means of transport are:

ROADWAYS
• The most commonly used means of transport are the roads. Especially, for short distances. Roads can be metalled (Pucca) and unmetalled (Kutcha).
• Roads are the best means to link the rural and urban places across the country.
• The plains have a dense network of roads because it is easy to construct roads in plain than in the mountains.

RAILWAYS
• Railways is the fastest and the cheapest means of land transportation.
• Diesel and electric engines have largely replaced the steam engines. Electric engines are fast and eco-friendly and don't cause pollution.
• Indian railway network is well developed. It is the largest in Asia.

WATERWAYS
• Waterways are the oldest and the cheapest means of transportation to carry heavy and bulky goods from one country to another.
• Waterways are mainly of two types – Inland waterways and sea routes.

AIRWAYS
• This is the fastest & most comfortable means of transportation and also the most expensive due to high cost of fuels.
• It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways. Helicopters are extremely useful in most inaccessible areas.
• Air Services are of two types: - (1) Domestic Airways: Fly within the boundaries of a country. (2) International Airways: Fly abroad and connects major cities of the world.

Q10. Distinguish between (i) Rural and Urban Settlement (ii) Personal and Mass Communication
Ans:
(i) Rural and Urban Settlement

(ii) Personal and Mass Communication

Q11. Why do we need means of communication? What are its two categories? What is there importance?
Ans: Communication is the process of conveying messages (sending or receiving) and ideas to others. With the development of technology humans have devised new and fast modes of communication.
Two categories of communication are: Personal and Mass Communication.
Importance of communication system can hardly be over estimated. Communication systems, such as TV, radio, mobile phones, etc, are the basic necessities' of modern society. Over the last few decades, the importance of communication is being increasingly recognized the face of in disaster and its management. A number of countries have setup Disaster Management Information System according to their needs. A good and effecting communication system can help in averting and reducing the impact of disasters.

 

-----x-----X-----x-----

20 January, 2015

Class VII: Chapter 7 (Human Environment – Settlement, Transport & Communication)

Human beings depended entirely on nature for food, clothing and shelter; but with time they learnt new skills to grow food, build homes and develop better means of transport and communication.  In this way they modified the environment where they lived.

Settlement:

1.  Earlier man lived a nomadic life, moving from one place to another in search of food and shelter, later man invented agriculture and started leading a more settled life.

2.  The settlements grew near the river valleys as water was available and land was fertile. With the development of trade, commerce and manufacturing, human settlements became larger.

What is settlement?

Ans: It is a place where people build their homes and interact with each other, carrying out various occupational activities which help making life more comfortable.

 

TYPES OF SETTLEMENTS

 

Settlements can be classified into two types: - Temporary or Permanent Settlements

 

Permanent Settlements can be classified into two types: - Rural and Urban settlements

 

Rural Settlements can be classified into two types: -  Isolated and Compact Settlements

 

TRANSPORT

Transport is the means by which people and goods move from one place to another.In the early days it took a great deal of time, to travel long distances. People had to walk and used animals to carry their goods.Invention of the wheel made transport easier. With the passage of time different means of transport developed to a great extent.

 

MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION

 

ROADWAYS

  • The most commonly used means of transport are the roads. Especially, for short distances. 
  • Roads can be metalled (Pucca) and unmetalled (Kutcha).
  • Roads are the best means to link the rural and urban places across the country.
  • In developed countries road network is very good.
  • The plains have a dense network of roads because it is easy to construct roads in plain than in the mountains.
  • In India we have National Highways connecting all major cities of the country. 
  • There are state highways and district roads which connects all cities and towns.
  • Manali-Leh highway in the Himalayan Mountains is one of the highest roadways in the world.

 

RAILWAYS

  • Railways is the fastest and the cheapest means of land transportation.
  • Diesel and electric engines have largely replaced the steam engines.
  • Electric engines are fast and eco-friendly and don't cause pollution.
  • Factors responsible for the construction of railway lines: - Relief Features, Climatic Conditions, Density of Population and availability of resources.
  • Railway network is more developed in the plains than in the mountiains.
  • Indian railway network is well developed. It is the largest in Asia.

 

WATERWAYS

  • Waterways are the oldest  and the cheapest means of transportation to carry heavy and bulky goods from one country to another.
  • Waterways are mainly of two types – inland waterways and sea routes.
  • Inland Waterways: Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland waterways. Some of the important inland waterways are the Ganga-Brahmaputra  river system, the Great Lakes in North America and the river Nile in Africa.
  • Sea routes and oceanic routes are mostly used for transporting merchandise and goods from one country to another. These routes are connected with the ports. Some of the important ports of the world are Singapore and Mumbai in Asia, New York, Los Angeles in North America, Rio de Janerio in South America, Durban and Cape Town in Africa, Sydney in Australia, London and Rotterdam in Europe.
  • Important Sea Routes of the world: North Atlantic Route which connects North America with Europe. Mediterranean Sea – Indian Ocean connecting Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Cape of Good Hope-Australia
  • Major sea ports of India: - Mumbai, Kandla, Kochi, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Kolkata.

 

AIRWAYS

  • This is the fastest & most comfortable means of transportation and also the most expensive due to high cost of fuels.
  • Air traffic is adversely affected by bad weather like fog and storms, etc.
  • It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways.
  • Helicopters are extremely useful in most inaccessible areas and in time of calamities for rescuing people and distributing food, water, clothes and medicines.
  • Some of the important airports are Delhi, Mumbai, New York, London, Paris, Frankfurt and Cairo.
  • Air Services are of two types: - (1) Domestic Airways: Fly within the boundaries of a country. (2) International Airways: Fly abroad and connects major cities of the world.

 

 

COMMUNICATION

  • Communication is the process of conveying messages (sending or receiving) and ideas to others. 
  • With the development of technology humans have devised new and fast modes of communication.
  • The invention of printing press, radio, television, development of satellites, radar and computers has greatly revolutionized the communication system.
  • Satellites have helped in oil exploration, survey of forest, underground water, mineral wealth, weather forecast and disaster warning.
  • Postal and telegraph services, telephones, e-mails, etc are personal means of communication.
  • Through Newspapers, magazines, radio, television, films, etc. Communication can be done with large no. Of people. This is known as Mass Communication.
  • Mass Communication can provide both education and entertainment.
  • Wireless telephonic communications through cellular phones have become very popular today.
  • Internet not only provides us with worldwide information and interaction but has also made our lives more comfortable.
  • Now, we are a large global society, The world.

 

 

-----x-----X-----x-----

16 January, 2015

Class VII: Chapter 6 (Natural Vegetations and Wildlife) Question & Answer

 

Very Short Answer Questions

Q1. What do you mean by natural vegetations?
Ans: Plants which grow naturally without any human interference, covering a large area is known as natural vegetation.

Q2. Name the factors on which growth of vegetation depends.
Ans: Rainfall, Temperature, Relief, Soil & its fertility, height above sea level, Sunshine, Drainage, etc.

Q3. Why are the trees in Evergreen forests remain green all round the year?
Ans: In the Evergreen forests there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. Thus, these forests remain green all round the year.

Q4. What makes Camel an essential animal for the desert dwellers?
Ans: Camel is the most important animal of the deserts also known as the Ship of the desert. Camels have special body features which help them to survive in extreme conditions. Camels can survive for many days without water.

Q5. Why are several plants, animals and birds becoming endangered species?
Ans: Human activities like deforestation, agriculture, mining, hunting, industrialization, modernization, etc. have destroyed several ecosystems to meet their demands, making several plants, animals and birds becoming endangered species.

 

Short Answer Questions

Q6. Distinguish between (i) Evergreen and Deciduous Forests (ii) Tropical and Temperate Grasslands
Ans.
(i) Evergreen and Deciduous Forests

(ii) Tropical and Temperate Grasslands

Q7. Why do softwood trees have great commercial value?
Ans. Softwood trees have great commercial value because the wood is used for manufacturing paper and newsprint. The wood is also used for making furniture, matchstick, plywood and sports goods. Infact, 80% of the world timber comes from softwood trees.

Q8. How do shrubs and some trees survive in hot deserts?
Ans. Shrubs and trees found in the hot deserts have some special characteristics. Vegetation cover includes thorny bushes, cacti and few short trees. These have long roots, thick stems, waxy leaves and thorns which help the vegetation to survive in such harsh climatic conditions.

Q9. Why is there very limited vegetation in the Ladakh region?
Ans. Ladakh region is like a cold desert, there is snow cover through the year. The extremely cold conditions do not allow the growth of vegetation on a large scale. Thus, we find very limited vegetation in these regions.

 

Long Answer Questions

Q10. Describe the main characteristics of tropical rain forests.
Ans. Characteristics of the tropical rain forests are as follows:
(a) These regions are hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year.
(b) As there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are called evergreen.
(c) Maximum varieties of trees are found. Trees are tall with large trunks.
(d) The thick canopies of the closely spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate inside the forest even in the day time. Thus, grass is not found in these forests.
(e) Hardwood trees like rosewood, teak, sal, ebony, and mahogany are the common trees found here.
(f) Here the population found is very less. Due to dense forests commercial exploitation of these forests has not be possible, making them economically backward.
(g) Large variety and most colourful animals are found here.
(h) Monkey, Ape, Birds, Hippopotamus, snake, python, Frog, Crocodile, etc. Anaconda, world's largest snake is also found in these areas.

Q11. Where are Mediterranean forests located? Highlight the main characteristics of the trees found here.
Ans. Mediterranean forests are found on the western margins of continents in the warm temperate regions, in areas around Mediterranean Sea, Central Chile, South-West USA, Australia, Africa.
Some of the main characteristics of the trees found here are:
(a) Mediterranean trees adapt themselves to dry summers with the help of their thick barks and wax coated leaves which help them reduce transpiration. Also, here the plants have long tap roots to reach underground water, called "Xerophytic Plants".
(b) Mediterranean regions are known as 'Orchards of the world' for their fruit cultivation.
(c) Citrus fruits such as oranges, figs, olives and grapes are commonly cultivated here because people have removed the natural vegetation in order to cultivate what they want to.

Q12. Why do the trees in the Coniferous forests have conical shape?
Ans. Chir, pine, cedar, etc. are the important variety of trees found in these forests. These trees are tall, straight and conical shaped with needle shaped leaves. The conical shapes of these trees are best suited to the climatic conditions as it allows the snow to slide down the leaves and branches of these trees.

 

-----x-----X-----x-----

 

Home← Older posts